Monday, September 30, 2019

Report will focus on analysing the existence of power Essay

Introduction This report will focus on analysing the existence of power, control and resistance within an organisation with particular reference toward Australia’s largest and most successful telecommunications provider, Telstra (Telstra, 2013). Applying widely recognised theoretical frameworks and concepts against these focus areas, a critical analysis has been conducted and assessed with the findings referenced throughout the report determining the positive and negative impacts each are having on Telstra the organisation and its stakeholders. The three focus areas of power, control and resistance are major influences within any organisation and critical to its success. Power and control can be perceived as being the same within an organisation, however there are key differentiators between the two that is important to identify and understand. Both power and control of an organisation can have various levels of influence on its stakeholders depending on a companies geographical or workfor ce size and culture. A level of power labeled as â€Å"Domination† identifies the way that an organisation can ultimately shape the preferences, attitudes and even political outlooks of its stakeholders (Sadan, 1997). The area of control stems from the introduction of â€Å"scientific management† introduced by (Taylor, 2007). Taylor’s methodologies of control are still predominant in many modern organisations that adopt various means to maintain a controlled workplace. Such means can consist of forms of surveillance such as email and phone scanning, remote working arrangements and segmentation of skills. Jermier, Knights, & Nord refer to resistance within an organisation as constituting forms of power that’s exercised by subordinates within a workplace. Example forms or â€Å"faces† of resistance are refusal, voice, escape and creation. With an understanding of the theoretical frameworks and concepts of these three focus areas, various stakeholders of Telstra have been interviewed to construct a comprehensive analysis on what impact power, control and resilience is having on the organisation and its stakeholders. Methodology Being one of the largest organizations in Australia, power, control, and resistance is spread throughout the companies multiple functions and sectors. It is these elements that aid in shaping the way Telstra operates. This fact has led to various methods being utilized to collect and critically analyse information on Telstra regarding these three aspects of organizational behaviour. Both primary and secondary research was conducted for this report. Primary sources include conversations with Telstra stakeholders in conjunction with online secondary research. Stakeholders include employees of Telstra as well as the customers themselves. By learning about their experiences with Telstra a better understanding of the organization was created as well as how power, control, and resistance are evident in Telstra. The use of primary and secondary research allowed for power, control and resistance to be critically analysed in Telstra. A number of theories were also addressed in the analysis of Telstra. Relevant aspects of power, control, and resistance were explored and applied to Telstra to develop this report. As power, control, and resistance are different elements of organizational behaviour, a range of theories needed to be used in order to properly analyse Telstra. This also led to the stakeholder interviews being less formal due to questions having to cover such as large industry and often transparent elements of organizational behaviour. To address the issue of power in Telstra, a number of cases were used to identify the scope of power itself in Telstra and how those in power are at times abusing it or using it as a tool for manipulation. In some cases, the extremities of Telstra are clearly shown. Alongside this evidence and research, the theoretical framework of the ‘four faces of power’ derived from Lukes (1986) and Foucault (1977) was used for analysis of the company. As Telstra is a very large company, appropriate control systems and management of control is essential throughout all the functions of the business. To analyse how control plays a critical role in Telstra, different functions of the organization and their appropriate control mechanism were explo red. This was done through researching into examples and cases of how Telstra has managed it’s control systems. Similarly to the use of the ‘four faces of power’, resistance was also analysed using a comparable framework. The framework used was the ‘four faces of resistance’. This framework helped to highlight areas where employees show resistance and how far they can take it. Research and cases gathered coupled together with the four faces of resistance aided in presenting and analysing the various issues of resistance and how it exists in Telstra. Organisational Power â€Å"Power is derived from owning and controlling the means of production and how this power is reinforced by organisational structures and rules of governance† (Weber and Marx, 1948) Telstra as an organization consists of management hierarchy comprising of numerous Directors and Executives that hold responsibility for the direction and public image of Telstra. These positions at times are extremely demanding as their everyday decisions can, and will have an effect on the business profits and customer satisfaction levels. Power is crucial amongst these ranks as it is required to make necessary changes and improvements to policy and procedure in the highly competitive industry of telecommunications. Ultimately the responsibility of the performance of Telstra resides with the CEO (David Thodey) and the supporting Directors (executive and non-executive). As the ‘Top-level manager’, David Thodey makes decisions affecting the entire company. He does not direct the day -to-day activities of the company; instead he sets goals for the organization and directs the company to achieve them. An example is the announcement of a strategy of market differentiation and a renewed focus on customer service and satisfaction (Telstra Website, 2009). Top managers are ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization (Simmering, 2007). Following the top-level management group is the middle-level managers, who set goals for their departments and other business units. Middle managers are charged with motivating and assisting first-line managers to achieve the company’s objectives. They also play an important role by communicating and offering suggestions to the top managers, as they are more involved in the day-to-day workings of the company. The next level of management is the first-level. This level is responsible for the daily management of the employees who actually produce the product or offer the service. Although first-level managers typi cally do not set goals for the organization, they have a very strong influence on the company, as they are the managers that most employees interact with on a daily basis. Telstra’s use of coercion internally has become evident in various situations. By assessing the four faces of power we can see how intimidation towards workers has resulted in a number of public outbursts. An unethical and undisclosed strategy was introduced by Telstra during 2008 whereby 15,000 employees were targeted to sign up to Australian Workforce Agreements (AWA) before the ban on agreements was to be imposed by the Government (Eastley, 2008). A confidential Telstra document showed that managers were given 29 pages of tips on how to best convince workers to signing up to AWA’s (Hawley, 2008). The document urged managers to use psychological profiling of employees when considering who to target and were rewarded with bonuses once successfully signing workers up to workplace agreements. This method of power is an example of coercion. Telstra has clearly done something unethically in this situation. The company’s actions have demonstrated a coercive environment that maximises pressure through psychological manipulation. Domination is a level of power that identifies the way in which an organisation can ultimately shape the preferences, attitudes and even political outlooks of its stakeholders Lukes (1986). Telstra’s domination of most communications markets and its ability to leverage market power across markets is a consequence of its structure. The result is the failure of competition affecting all consumer groups. The ideal solution is a form of structural separation of Telstra. This objective can be achieved through the creation of a regulatory package that delivers as much of the benefit as possible that would be derived from structural separation, while acknowledging the limitations of real separation to address the core incentives of Telstra to favour itself (Competitive Carriers’ Coalition Inc, 2005). Workplace bullying is a widespread issue that can only be resolved through an implementation strategy targeting all employees. Employers need to be held accountable and have a str ategy in place to protect the employees from this offence. Unfortunately this is not always the case, in some instances the employer is the one orchestrating the bullying. A recent case in which the Administrative Appeals Tribunal overruled Telstra’s decision not to pay compensation to an ex-employee for stress and psychological injury shows that it is possible to resist intimidation (Sdrinis, 2012). Mr Sami was successful in wining his compensation claim against Telstra for work-related psychological injuries and in particular in relation to bullying and harassment by his manager over a period of time. This case underlines that management’s often-used tactics of subtle bulling and harassment to push people out the door has a human cost which the law is prepared to recognise. Within most major companies, including Telstra, workers have to live with the threat of losing their jobs and this case should encourage workers to stand up to workplace harassment and, if victimized, seek legal advice and compensation. Organisational Control In order to regulate and manage organisational activities and resources, so that accomplishing goals and objectives are possible, organisations need control. It is a significant part of running any business so that a targeted element of performance remains up to organisational standard. There is a considerable amount of responsibility that goes into managing control, as there are many different levels and areas in which organisations define control. Information Resources is an area of control in which include sales forecasting, environmental analysis and production scheduling. In a recent article, Telstra has reported a 12.9 per cent increase in net profit, reaching $3.9 billion, and an increase in revenue up two per cent to $26 billion (Bartholomeusz, Technology Spectator, 2013). Telstra chief executive officer David Thodey said it was the â€Å"third consecutive year of significant customer growth for Telstra mobile, driven by $1.2 billion of investment in the network during the y ear.† As profit results slightly bettered expectations, this can only leave a positive impact on employees, shareholders and the organisation itself. For instance, as a result of meeting organisational goals and objectives, employees get to keep their job, and keep the shareholders content. In any organisation, operations control is needed to control the processes used to transform resources into products and services. As Telstra is constantly aspiring to grow as a company and are faced with new business opportunities, changes in operational processes takes place as a result, workers find themselves jobless. The terminal decline of Telstra’s once-dominant telephone business and the rise of new business opportunities have forced the telco giant into a major operational restructure that will affect half the company’s 30,000 strong domestic workforce (Bingemann, 2013). (Telstra Chief Operations officer Brendon Riley, is likely to see hundreds of jobs cut from the te lco as it transitions its operations and IT divisions from infrastructure-based businesses to more of a software and services future (Bingemann, 2013). Although this may mean good news for Telstra advancing as an organisation, this change in operations control is affecting the lives of 30,000 loyal employers and their families. Telstra’s financial control plan has an upside and a downside. Like most organisations, a budget control provides a way of measuring performance across different aspects within the company. Also control the financial resources as they flow into, are held by, and flow out of the organisation. Telstra while having generated some $2 billion in savings has punished workers by cutting 1,000 net local jobs over the past two and a half years (Bartholomeusz, Business Spectator, 2013). Although the savings are benefiting Telstra’s fast-growing mobile business, the price to pay is substantial for those 1,000 workers who need to make ends meet. Telstra has insisted that it can simultaneously cut costs while improving customer service b y reducing errors, queries and complaints that allow it to, for instance, reduce call centre staff (Bartholomeusz, Business Spectator, 2013). As technology advances, so does the way people do things. With the new possibilities of using apps and online resources to ask questions, queries and form complaints, the need for call centre workers reduces sizeable Organisational Resistance Within the multinational telecommunication company Telstra, numerous accounts of resistance both internally and externally have risen from management decisions by the company’s head. Several incidents have occurred in which the public and workers have raised their voice in resistance against some of the giant’s actions. By assessing the four faces of resistance, we can see typical and expected responses from the public and workers. One incident occurred earlier this year in February. Telstra slashed over 700 jobs from their Sensis network, which resulted in mass rallies and protests by union leaders and workers alike (Conifer, 2013). This method of resistance is an example of ‘voice.’ By publicly displaying and enforcing their dissatisfaction against the loss of their jobs, the union workers are resisting Telstra’s actions. The rally and protests have been constructed to highlight the unsatisfactory methods of Telstra. As Telstra grows as a company, many Australian jobs are being sent offshore, particularly to Asian nations. The rapid growth of the company forces management and corporate heads to expand the company to increase revenue and profits, at the expense of Australian jobs. In July of this year, over 170 jobs were sent offshore to India, which lead to widespread union outrage (Bingemann,, 2013). The Communication, Electrical and Plumbing union, as well as the Community and Public Sector unions protested and demanded negotiations in regards to job losses. The fact that unions stood up and resisted to sacrifice their jobs highlights an internal voice of the company. This resistance from the unions demonstrates a type of power that workers have within their job, to stand up against unsatisfactory managerial decisions. (Bingemann,, 2013) The third face of resistance represents the ‘escape’ side of work. This face is made up of three tools: cynicism, scepticism and dis-identification. Dis-identification refers to the disconnection from ones identity and the work environment. In an incident that occurred in April of 2007, a young girl committed suicide after been given unrealistic work goals and hassled by management staff of Telstra to return to work during her stress leave (Masanauskas, 2007). This amount of pressure lead to her suicide, and the change from her once â€Å"vibrant personality† was transformed into a â€Å"nervous wreck† (Masanauskas, 2007). The young women’s parents described the Telstra staff to be treating their daughter â€Å"like a machine.† From this tragedy, the union demanded realistic work goals and targets. The dis-identification from ‘human’ to ‘machine’ within the workplace highlights the third face of resistance, to escape work. However, this escape was much more serious and punishing, for it was not just a mental escape from work, but a suicide. Conclusion Throughout this report it is made evident that the three focal behavioral characteristics of organisations can have a major impact on its stakeholders. Although these impacts can be both positive and negative it is clear from the examples provided that a balance between what’s positive to both an organisation and its stakeholders remains a huge challenge to maintain. Telstra has been used as a case organisation due to its operational size and market reach throughout the country and spreading to different cultures internationally. Various methods were used to gather and analyse information specific to the affects of power, control and resistance from both internal and external stakeholders of the company which formed the basis of or report. Power of an organisation over its stakeholders is seen almost always as a negative characteristic but is critical to an organisations success. It was found that power in Telstra is delegated down through a hierarchal management structure to manage staff and performance. This lead onto analysing which control methods are being used within Telstra such as performance goals and project deadlines, which have been founded to be a major cause of many bully and stress related complaints. Due to the mismanagement of power and control various cases of industrial action and even suicide has been reported as a form of resistance from stakeholders. This resistance has a negative impact on the public image of the organisation and can potentially affect its market value. It is critical for organisations to achieve a balance between economic growth and ethical practices. Until this happens cases such of those highlighted in the report will continue causing restraint and harm to both the organisation and its stakeholders.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Peon Perspective

Holly S. Organizational Communication Dr. S. June 26, 2012 The Peon Perspective â€Å"A â€Å"peon† is a worker at or near the bottom of the organizational ladder who does work that requires minimal skills. Everyone starts at the bottom, even those with college degrees. All of us, have been, or will be peons at one time or another. †(Richmond and McCroskey). The preliminary principles for peons are people who are at or near the bottom of the hierarchy that require minimum skills who need to demonstrate their value. The only way to no longer be in the â€Å"peon status† is to learn organization to find success.The one question to ask is, is the peon perspective biblical or unbiblical? I believe that the peon perspective is biblical. In 1 Corinthians 14:40 it says, â€Å"But all things should be done decently and in order. † Respecting the power placed over you defines the principle of power. To be considered a valuable employee you must learn formal and inf ormal norms. Norms such as, obeying the rules and doing your job as well as your superior would do it. Everyone is hired on a trial basis in any organization and it is the individual’s job to respect the power placed above him or her in order to succeed.Daniel 2:21 says, â€Å"He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding†. God clearly tells us to understand the knowledge of our authority and to submit to those above us. Never make a decision today that can be postponed until tomorrow defines the principle of decision-making. Although some decisions should be made immediately, the issue is not that you need to wait to make a decision but rather to make an informed decision.Those who make hasty decisions get into trouble. Taking the time to slow down and think about the decision could potentially keep your job. Proverbs 29:20 says, â€Å"Do you see a man hasty in his words? Th ere is more hope for a fool than for him†. Scripture clearly states that we must always think before we speak. The organization getting along without you defines the principle of self-importance. No matter how skilled or motivated you are, the organization can always move along without you. The organization does not have to have you in it to keep it going.The organization got along quite well before you were hired; it can get along quite well if you are fired. Proverbs 16:18 says, â€Å"Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall†. Also, James 4:10 says, â€Å"Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you†. The Bible proves the action of humility and the outcomes of being humble. The peon principles are no guarantee and their effect is not usually enough to achieve individual success. But because these principles are backed up with God spoken scripture, success is possible.In Philippians 4:8, it says â€Å"Finally, brothers, what ever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things†. Although these principles are true, God will grant you success if you simply listen to Him. â€Å"My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand† (John 10:27-28).

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Movie Winnie Mandela Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Winnie Mandela - Movie Review Example A terrorist also depicts a person using terror, intimidation, and violence to achieve an end. The presence of different definitions and understanding of terrorism depicts several levels of complexities in terrorism. The study aims at reviewing the levels of complexities in the film, Winnie Mandela that aimed at expounding the role played by Winnie Mandela in the fight for South Africa’s fight for freedom. There are several ways in which the film, Winnie Mandela portrays terrorism with the definition evident from watching the film being the use of violence or threat of violence to achieve an end. One of the designations of terrorism evident in the film, Winnie Mandela, is violence against others as a measure of achieving a cause. This is evident when Winnie Mandela played by Jennifer Hudson perpetrates violence against opponents. The implication of Winnie Mandela of a teenager’s murder is a designation of terrorism since the main reason for the murder is to send a message to dissenters and informers who would face death and other forms of violence. The film provides that terrorism involves the use of violence to achieve a cause, which in the case of Winnie was to oppose the government through using violence against those who opposed her and the Mandela United Football Club. The use of violence in the achievement of the aim evidences terrorism as aimed at achieving the intended aim using all means necessary. The statement, â€Å"with our boxes of matches and our necklaces, we shall liberate this country†, depicting the use of old tires on informants’ necks and burning them alive depicts violence. Terrorism is also designated as an act of defiance aimed at achieving the goals designed despite the consequences. The film uses the actions of Winnie Mandela to depict defiance through her decision to engage in violence against her deserters. The decision is contrary to the requirements and believes of her husband Nelson Mandela and is well

Friday, September 27, 2019

Erik Larson's Devil In the White City Term Paper

Erik Larson's Devil In the White City - Term Paper Example The official name of the â€Å"Devil in the White City† was the World’s Columbian Exposition. Burnham, the competent architect of the Colombian World’s Fair made Chicago the white City with his construction and masterpieces. Actually, the story of The Devil in the White City is about two main characters Holmes and Denial Hudson Burnham. White City represented the Chicago at its good; the awful killing of Holmes surely qualified for the darkest side of the city. Holmes operated his mansion as a hotel during the fair. It was really a horror house. Many women came in Chicago in search of jobs and got attracted towards him for jobs or stayed in his hotel during the fair and were not sighted again. Holmes gasconaded that he had murdered not less than 27 women in his lifetime. After murder he sold their skeletons and other parts to any medical college or others. This story revealed the contrasts of city Chicago that was filled with both bright and dark aspects. One mig ht easily debate that city has not changed yet in this respect. Burnham, the man of principles and having high capabilities presented the bright aspect of life. He built the World’s Famous Fair in Chicago and gained a lot of popularity. His efforts towards this achievement showed all about the White City. The author presented Chicago’s brighter parts in the character of Burnham and evils in the character of Holmes and referred as Black City. ... In short, The Devil in the White City is an attracting and delighting description of a sensational period in Chicago’s history. Eric Larson, the author of the â€Å"Devil in the White City† has described the two aspect of human nature in his writing, good and evil. It is a natural phenomenon of life where there is good there is also evil and wickedness. By saying the Black City to Chicago, it means to show the evil aspect of Chicago, where a serial killer has an appetite of killing young women in the disguise of a well-known famous doctor, H.H Holmes. He had made a Fair Hotel where he seduced women and killed them bitterly. After their death, he sold their body parts and skeletons. Larson has tried to show the dual aspects of Holmes and Burnham. Chicago had a great reputation in cultural as well economical fields. The World Exposition had created a lot of opportunities for the country. People came there in search of new opportunities of jobs and some went back and other stayed there. The Fair also created jobs opportunities at a time when economy was not good and there was recession. Although it took a lot of time to become stable after the Fair, Chicago got the state what it should be. But along this fame and repute there is evil and wicked thing that Dr. H.H Holmes got chances to kill a lot of women just for money and his inner satisfaction. Therefore author refers the Chicago as the Black City. Chicago World‘s Fair of 1893 proves a great turning point in the history of America. According to Erick, The Fair literally changed America. It also showed the condition of Chicago that needed the reform action in areas like worker’s right, sanitation, law enforcement and many more. In spite of it, the city’s businessmen and architects made the reputation of

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Geometry proj2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Geometry proj2 - Essay Example be used to find the area of a parallelogram since the rectangle has been obtained by translating a triangular section of the parallelogram without loss of area thereby maintaining the base length and height. 4. How do the base and height of the parallelogram compare to the base and height of the original triangle? Write an expression for the height of the parallelogram in terms of the height, h, of the triangle. 10. Show how you can find an area formula for a kite using a reflection. (hint: Reflect half of the kite across its line of symmetry d1 by folding the kite along d1. How is the area of the triangle formed related to the area of the kite) 2. A company sells cornmeal and barley in cylindrical containers. The diameter of the base of the 6-in-high cornmeal container is 4 in. The diameter of the base of the 4-in-high barley container is 6 in. Which container has the greater surface area? Which container has the greater volume? 3. The roof of a 50 ft circular building is shaped like a cone with a diameter of 40 ft and height 20 ft. What is the surface area of the building and roof together? What is the volume of building and roof together? (5 points) 5. On Sept. 3, 1970, a hailstone with diameter of 5.6 in fell at Coffeyville, KS. It weighed about 0.018 lb/in.3 compared to the normal 0.033 lb/in.3 for ice. About how heavy was this Kansas hailstone? (5 points) 7. Two storage bins are built in the form of rectangular prisms, and the two bins are similar. One stores wheat at a cost of $.15 per bushel, and the other stores corn at a cost of $.20 per bushel. The bin storing the wheat has a square base 80 ft on a side and is 120 ft tall. If the cost of storing the wheat is $8000, and the cost of storing the corn is $36,000, find the height and the length to the nearest whole number of a side of the base of the bin storing corn. (2 points) 9. Two similar cylinders contain juice. The first cylinder has radius 6 in and height 10 in., contains orange

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

TV Advertising Strategy for Teenage Makeup Research Paper

TV Advertising Strategy for Teenage Makeup - Research Paper Example Therefore, it would be most logical to tie the makeup advertisement with the television programs that are highly popular among the target audience – teenagers. Contrary to the common belief that conventional advertising doesn’t resonate attract teenagers, it has been observed that â€Å"once an ad breaks through the clutter, teens are much more likely to ‘like’ an advertisement than their older counterparts† (Nielsen, 2009, â€Å"Messaging to Teens†). It has been reported that the most popular networks among American teenagers include â€Å"MTV, Disney ®, Cartoon Network ®, Fox, ABC Family, Nickelodeon/Nick at Night ®, Comedy Central ®, and MTV2† (Malinowski, 2010, â€Å"Television†); however, it is worth mentioning on a more particular note that younger female teenagers have more liking for Disney ®, and their older counterparts favor MTV. Hence, these channels should be chosen for the purpose of advertising teenage makeup, due to their obvious popularity among female teenagers in America. It has been observed that the television shows which enjoy maximum popularity among the American teenagers comprise â€Å"Full House, Family Guy, and Hannah Montana. One Tree Hill, Gilmore Girls, and Greys Anatomy† – more importantly, these are also the programs that are liked the most by older female teenagers. Apart from these, it has been found that non-white teenagers prefer â€Å"Degrassi, Charmed, and Friends† (Malinowski, 2010, â€Å"Television†). It has been reported that advertisements pertaining to hair products and cosmetics are among those that â€Å"did the best job of breaking through the clutter to teen viewers† (Nielsen, 2009, â€Å"Advertising†). Therefore, the most logical strategy will be to tie the advertisements with these programs in order to enhance the impact on the teenagers. Owing to the fact that the world is transforming into a global

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Should taking photos be allowed everywhere Essay

Should taking photos be allowed everywhere - Essay Example Individuals often take photos for different reasons and in different avenues; however, issues may arise regarding where individuals decides to take their photos for various reasons that include privacy or security reasons. On another note, society today is liberal and this puts into question why people should be denied the liberty to take photos where they like. Taking photos needs to be allowed everywhere since this will allow individuals to relive their best memories on planet earth. This is especially important for those taking photos as a leisure, to commemorate a particular event or as a profession for instance photo journalism. In the contemporary world, photography has become part and parcel the working class, the youth and families who wants a piece of past events to keep as a souvenir. In industrialized nations such as the United States, United Kingdom and Japan are more attracted to tourism as a way of spending their vocation. In order to keep the memories of the areas that they visit as a tourist, taking photos is important for such tourists. This allows the tourists take back home part of the regions that they visit during their vocations. When back home such photos give some sense of satisfaction regarding how a person spent his vacation, this is often shaped with workmates or friends back home. The workplace is often hectic for professionals and vacations exist to help individuals to take a leave from the work environment. However, instead of resting home, these individuals often prefer to spend their vacation in a way that they will remember for a longer period. This has led to the establishment of vacation sites across the world. The scenes at these sites are often fascinating and tourists want to remember such sites by taking photos. On the other hand, photos hold a special place for families and in terms of remembering lifetime events such as

Monday, September 23, 2019

Sir Isaac Newton as the Father of Modern Science in Scientific History Research Paper

Sir Isaac Newton as the Father of Modern Science in Scientific History - Research Paper Example Though in the field of physical science his predecessors have excelled in theoretical explanations of the behavior of the physical world, Newton provided theories a solid mathematical ground. He is mostly remembered because of his book â€Å"Philosophia Principia Mathematica† in which he explains the behaviors of moving bodies. Indeed the later development of Einsteinium Physics was greatly contributed to by the Newton’s the ideas and theories that he discussed in â€Å"Principia†. The book â€Å"Principia† brought him the fame and made him a public figure because of its importance to change the commoners’ view of the universe. Obviously Newton’s idea of the universe dominated the knowledge of the physics till Albert Einstein came up with a relative view of the universe in his theory of Relativity. Indeed even after the publishing of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, Newton concept of the universe continued to teach people about the sys tem and functionality of the universe. Newton’s Contribution to Mathematics Newton’s career began with his study on calculus. Though he invented calculus solely, the credit of inventing calculus fell upon the part of German scientist Leibniz. Anyway, in 1669 on the subject of infinite series Newton’s study paper "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" was greatly appreciated by his contemporaries. Regarding Newton’s genius Isaac Barrow’s comment was as following: "Mr Newton, a fellow of our College, and very young ... but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things." ... Indeed Newton’s Principia was not written in the language of Calculus, though he comprehensively used infinitesimal calculus in geometric forms. In Principia, Newton effectively employed â€Å"limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities† naming it â€Å"the method of first and last ratios.† (Newton, 1727, p. 46) The use of â€Å"limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities† through the method of indivisibles was the first step to employ calculus in explaining the universe. As a result modern scholars often called Principia â€Å"a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus.† (Truesdell, 1968, p. 99) Indeed Newton was â€Å"distinctly advanced every branch of mathematics then studied† (Ball, 1908, p. 67). During his lifetime Newton significantly contributed to the development and a number of fields of mathematics such as â€Å"generalized binomial theorem†, â€Å"Newton's ide ntities†, â€Å"Newton's method†, â€Å"classified cubic plane curves†, â€Å"theory of finite differences†, and â€Å"use of fractional indices and coordinate geometry to obtain solutions to Diophantine equations† (Truesdell, 1968, p. 68). Newton’s Contribution to Physics One of Newton’s most remarkable contributions to science of his age was â€Å"the invention, design and construction of a reflecting telescope† (Gjertsen, 1986, p. 122) . This telescope had been considered as a significant advancement in the field of telescope technology. But his contributions to Optics were of greater importance. Newton spent several years investigating the refraction of light and invented that white light passed through a prism would decompose into a spectrum

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Christ in the Old Testament Essay Example for Free

Christ in the Old Testament Essay The Old Testament was like a world where God would unexpectedly appear to humans and interact with His creations. The main reasons for this particular action was to inform that person of what He was about to do. God would also use his appearances as a way to to strengthen and encourage his people. In this world, where God sneaks down to conform into the physical form of a human, was for the purpose so that His creations would be more easily able to relate to Him and receive His message more adequately. These appearances are known as Christophanies, and are shown throughout the Old Testament. James Borland writes a book named Christ in the Old Testament. Borland paints a detailed picture of what this world of Christophanies consisted of during that time. Appearances of God date all the way back to the early chapters of Genesis. Even though God appeared several times in throughout the book, not all those appearances are considered theophanies. It is difficult to find a comprehensive definition of what theophany is. For an example, God’s brief appearances to Abraham, Joshua, and Gideon are different than the appearances made in Shekinah, or as Jesus the Messiah. Borland quotes The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, which states â€Å"the idea of theophany is something temporary and not permanent† (15). There are Several different connotations of the term theophany, that will help better formulate the term Christophany. The different connotations can be distinguished in dreams, visions, shekinah glory, incarnation of Christ, after his resurrection, his second coming. They all differ from Christophany. Borland presents the idea of Christophany as concrete reality of the time before God began to reveal an ample amount of the Scriptures. The book is divided into different chapters that are in logical order. In the beginning of the book Borland first defines a Christophany, distinguishing and making it clear from other types of God’s manifestation. The primary difference between the Old Testament Christophany and the incarnation of Christ according to Borland,â€Å"Is not only in the transitory nature of the one and the permanency of the other. More importantly the incarnation of Christ involved a permanent union between God and complete manhood†(20). Christophany and incarnation are two different ideas. Christophanies were actual occurrences. They were not imaginary, or a hallucinatory experience. Borland said that a Christophanies must stand or fall with the entire word of God and cannot be separated out as later additions to legitimatize certain holy places (21). These were very special events. Some Characteristics of a Christophany that were included in the book: Christophanies could only be initiated by God, and He revealed Himself as He willed. Christophanies were revelatory or revealing. Each had an immediate purpose, such as the assurance of promises, warnings, or instruction. Christophanies were for individuals rather for multitudes, That is why the incarnation of Christ would not be considered a theophany. Christophanies were intermittent occurrences. There was no predictability as to when a Christophany might occur. They were random. Christophanies only lasted several minutes and they were always audible and visible. The recipient were not â€Å"hearing things† as the world today might say if a Christophany were to happen. Because of the incarnation of Christ, Christophanies are no longer necessary today (33-34). In the other chapters Borland offers several proof that the Old Testament Christophanies were actually appearances of God, Such as Scriptural, and theological. the person that appeared in the Old Testament was all deity and was proved to be the Father Son and the Holy spirit. The author often addresses the objections of various dissenting theologians, and various Scriptures that seem to preclude Christophanies. In the case such as in the book of Joshua where the text explains that Joshua saw a â€Å"man†, Borland is convinced that this is still an appearance of God, or Jehovah. In the last few chapters Borland explains the form of Christophanies. He explains that they are visible and were not through a vision. They were audible, and completely put in a human form in every and any recognizable way. Borland examines in depth several individual passages in where God appears or speaks. Borland also focused on the theology of the Christophany in the last few chapters, relating these appearances to four major forms of theology: bibliology, theology proper, Christology, and biblical theology. The main point that is made is that God had a purpose for revealing Himself in each Christophany. The world that existed during the time of the Old Testament is evident that it is not the same world that exists in the New Testament. Throughout the years since the Old Testament, God has appeared to humanity in different ways. Ways that are not considered Christophanies. It is amazing how God is willing to step out his throne and step down to communicate to a sinful person. The whole idea of God making an effort to communicate with his creation Whether it was in the old testament or in modern times, demonstrates his humility and love. As Christians we should respect and honor him for that. In writing this book James Borland did a wonderful job writing this book. It was very informational, and this book should be passed down for generations to come.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Politics And History Of Japan Essay Example for Free

Politics And History Of Japan Essay Nazi rule in Germany was unleashed after the Reichstag Fire in Berlin and almost 3 years after this, the February 26 incident helped to introduce militaristic rule in Japan. The February 26 incident awakened the sleeping giant that was Japan and triggered off major world conflicts. The February 26 Incident On February 26, 1936 a breakaway faction of the Imperial Japanese Army composed of young junior officers and swearing allegiance to the Kodo ha faction within the Army, slipped into the middle of Tokyo and captured key government buildings including the one which housed the Diet or Japanese parliament and Army headquarters. Groups raided the residences of the Prime Minister and senior officials in an attempt to assassinate them.   Prime Minister Okada Keisuke had a narrow escape when the rebels killed his brother in law instead. Others, among them the Finance Minister, were murdered. Subsequently that day, the rebel faction went to the Army Minister to make their demands. They declared the government unfit to lead the affairs of Japan not able to do enough for it as a military power, instead more involved with politics and their self- interest. The action, the group declared was taken in the name of the Emperor. They demanded an immediate dissolution of the Government and the installation of a military General sympathetic to their cause. However, this infuriated Emperor Hirohito who was appalled at the killing of senior colleagues. He summoned Aide de Camp General Shigeru Honjo and declared the faction members as rebels who were acting without the authority of the Imperial Army. The Emperor wanted the rebellion to be squashed. But Army retaliation was not forthcoming as senior officers were still in agreement with the agenda of the rebels. However   the ‘Toseiha’ faction in the Army which was against the doctrines of the Kodo Ha, volunteered full support to the Emperor and even the Imperial Japanese Navy sprung into action, moving its ships into the Tokyo Bay to cut off the rebels. When Emperor Hirohito was informed about the reluctance of the Army to take decisive action, he vowed to personally lead his ‘Imperial Guard ‘into the fray. The following day, martial law was declared and the rebels were boxed in and pamphlets of the Emperor’s declaration were circulated indicating that there was no support from any of the forces for their attack. General Honjo, once a believer of Kodo Ha doctrines was on the Emperor’s side. The offensive lasted till February 29 when the army moved in to capture the rebels and senior members of the faction were ordered to commit ‘seppuku’ or ritual suicide rather than lose their honor in a public trial. Other junior officers were spared. Altogether, 70 coup members were arrested and prosecuted for the crime.[1] Subsequent Events   Ã‚   The four day siege resulted in martial law being stretched to July. The army, sensing an opportunity, used the power provided by martial law to expand its powers and budget. Prime Minister Okada was replaced by Koki Hirota. This effectively ushered in totalitarian rule in Japan which was to set the stage for the Second Sino – Japanese War.[2] Historical Background of Militarism In Japanese history, the role of the military, or to be more precise, militarism has had an overwhelming role in shaping Japan’s world view. Militarism stands for a nation’s strength and should play a dominating role in political as well as social life. The influence of militarism goes back to the days of the Meiji Restoration, known in Japan as the Meiji Ishin or Revolution. This period stretched back to the days of the Tokugawa Shogunate and caused far reaching social changes in Japan of the late 19th century. This was a direct reaction to the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry’s fleet of American ships on Japanese shores. Commodore Perry forced a treaty – ending 200 years of Japanese insulation in matters of business – enabling trade between Japan and the United States. The Restoration came into being with the Satsuma Choshu Treaty which ultimately led to swearing of complete allegiance of the ruling Shoguns of that time to the Emperor. This was a creed forbidding all defiance to the Emperor (as Japanese history of that period depicts). Most Japanese leaders of that period were of Samurai descent and swore by the codes of the ancient Samurais – loyalty and allegiance to the ruler, dignity and honesty. The Japanese perception of events of that time was that the country’s sovereignty was threatened by outside forces. This justified building up a strong economic and military base to counter such a threat. This tradition continued till the 1800’s when mass conscription to the army and navy was considered an indication of unquestioning loyalty to the Emperor. Part of the reason for the widespread intrusion of militarism through to 1878 was the complete detachment of the forces from civilian society. The Staff commands established by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were responsible for formulating all defense strategy and were directly under the command of the Emperor. The Staff Chiefs were therefore under no obligation to the Prime Minister or any form of civilian law, During the Taisho period there was a return to democratic governance when the Washington Naval Treaty was signed and Japan participated in the League of Nations only to crumple with the onset of the Great Economic depression in 1929 when the world economy collapsed and caused trade barriers to be imposed by western nations. This was also coupled with domestic problems at home where several radical groups surfaced and there was even an attempt on the Emperor’s life, in 1932. These distressing events gave rise to patriotic feelings (maybe misplaced) in Japan. Such jingoism saw the military as the only solution to Japan‘s seemingly unending series of crises. The romantic notion that it was time for an Asian resurrection under Japanese rule took root. With the signing of the London Naval Treaty in 1930 by Prime Minister Osachi Hamaguchi and his party, the Navy was severely curbed in influence. This was seen by both the opposition and the military as endangering the country’s security. This whipped up jingoistic sentiment to the extent that Hamaguchi was killed in 1930 and the brief interlude with democratic rule came to an abrupt end. Subsequently, patriotic fervor in Japan gave the military free rein in Asia.[3] This was responsible for Japan’s involvement in several Asian conflicts: the Boxer Rebellion, World War 1, the Russo – Japanese War. The infamous Manchurian Incident of 1931 led to Japanese forces’ take-.over of all Manchuria – to protect Japan’s interests, chiefly Manchurian oil fields. The idea of military expansionism drove Japan into successive conflicts with China. In fact, there even was an attempted coup in Tokyo labeled the ‘Imperial Colors Incident’ which failed but was not made public knowledge. Ultimately, however, the swaggering domination of Japanese militarism failed to establish a dictatorship. The first nails into its coffin were driven by the government of Konoe Fumimaro, when, following wartime priorities his government, through the National Mobilization Law, brought all of Japan’s assets under its purview.   Also, in 1940, the formation of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association led to a single party political rule much discrediting the military.   On February 26, 1936, the rebel officers would hardly have been to foresee all this when they tried to take over Tokyo’s streets and were unleashing a murderous campaign. Until recent times, much romantic lore still surrounded military campaigns which allude to the glory of Japan’s military and Samurai like allegiance to the Emperor. The Emperor still remains a symbol of sovereignty in Japan and is much revered, being treated like a Head of State but is no longer the supreme authority over all Japan’s matters specially armed conflicts. Yukio Mishima spoke about the glory of Japan and the Emperor just before committing suicide inside a military barracks in 1970 and he was a well known literary figure in Japan   who wrote a novella on the February 1936 Incident–   proving that modern Japanese society still retains vestiges of its old fascination for matters martial. The members of the group that was behind the failed coup in 1936 are even being seen by some academics as. These were misguided bunch of young radicals who were only acting for Japan and God. They were not as ruthless as members of Hitler’s army were during the days of the Putsch.[4] February 26, 1936 – It’s Implications Under Koki Hirota’s rule m Japan and China engaged in the biggest war Asia right through 1945 from 1937 onward. The trend of militarism and military aspirations made stronger by the February Incident increased Japanese military aggression in Asian territory mainly to buttress its economic interests. The Second Sino – Japanese War was directly the result of Japanese policy toward China aimed at exploiting its natural reserves like oil.   Equally aggressive was the Chinese stance founded upon a new found realization of the unity of the Chinese people and their right to their own territory. A series of comparatively smaller sized conflicts led to a full scale conflagration. In 1937   The invasion of Manchuria – described above and particularly, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937 led to the war. Lugou Bridge in China is also known as the Marco Polo Bridge because Marco polo is supposed to have referred to this bridge while on his travels. It was controlled on its west end by the Japanese army and on the East by the Chinese Kuomintang Army. The bridge was a lifeline to Beijing to all areas under the Chinese army’s command – if this bridge fell – Beijing would too.[5] On June 1937, Japanese forces sent a message to the Kuomintang on the western end of the bridge about a missing soldier who might have gone over. They asked to be allowed to carry out a search on the opposite end. The Chinese refused the request acting under orders from their command chain. The Japanese countered this with a threat to open artillery fire if they were not allowed through. The prolonged aftermath saw led to the Japanese finally crushing the Kuomintang resistance and driving on toward Beijing and taking it over following which Japan had assumed control over the North China Plain, a strategically important region. The North China Plain has Beijing to its North East edge and Tianjin , an important industrial center on its North coast, What the Japanese actually did was to set up a ‘puppet’ state called Manchuoko , in Manchuria, installing the last Chinese Emperor   as a figurative head. This region actually prospered and its steel production exceeded Japan’s. Japan even gave up its membership of the League of Nations in 1933 after international protests over the incident but continued with its aggression in Chinese territory. Following the Marco Polo bridge incident, China and Japan engaged in full scale conflict from 1937 till 1945. On December, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy launched a full scale attack on the American Fleet docked at Pearl Harbor.   The compulsion of Japanese militarism post the February 1936 Incident and its acquisitive instincts in Asia made Japan very sensitive to the presence of others in the region. Its attack on Pearl Harbor was part of a preventive strategy aimed at halting what its military leaders saw as a build up of American interests in the region. Preventive conflicts have always risen because one or the other side believes that an offensive will result in preventing some projected or future incident. In Japan’s case it was its apprehension that American presence in the region was building up and would result in counter aggression for control over its territories in Asia and the Pacific. Pearl Harbor was the base for the American Naval Fleet and was attacked by almost 6 carriers of the Imperial Japanese Navy.   Waves of air attacks were also launched from the Navy vessels and over 300 aircraft flew over Pearl Harbor and destroyed the standing American fleet of ships. By this attack, America was forced to abandon its position of neutrality and enter into World War 2. For long America   was also building up its armed presence in Indo – China as we; as the East Indies as part of a series of counterbalancing moves aimed at keeping a check on Japanese movement in the region which was aggressively aimed at securing Asia and therefore its supreme position as its leader. Japan. Specifically, the objective of the Pearl Harbor attack was to secure Japanese advances into the East Indies islands and Malaya, both rich sources of oil and rubber. President Roosevelt was conscious of this when he ordered his fleet be strategically stationed in the Philippines region. According to Japanese assumption – a complete halt to American activity in the Pacific region – turned out to be completely wrong and it eventually had to surrender to American troops in 1945 bringing an end to World War II.[6] The Axis Pact In September 1940, Japan entered into a pact also known as the Tripartite Pact, with Fascist Italy and Adolph Hitler’s Nazi Germany which was the official declaration of the Axis Powers against the Allied powers. At the height of their power all 3 members commanded huge territories in Europe and Indo-China. Japan was under Emperor Hirohito and its main objective of signing the Pact was to protect its protect its military and economic bases in the pacific region. When Europe was engaged in its conflict with Germany, Japan insidiously moved into European colonies around the Pacific. America was the only nation to alert to Japanese intentions in this part of the world and countered Japan. Japanese believed that a war with the West was inevitable given its cultural differences but, given its unbridled militarism, Japan’s intentions were also materialistic. However, a certain section of the military leadership believed the conflict was to be aimed at hemming in Soviet Russia. But relations with the USA were also strained with American sponsored embargos on Japan m partly in response to its offensives against China. Japan saw US action against it as an act of western Imperialism and proceeded to band with Germany and Italy through the Tripartite Pact. Japan rushed headlong into its military inspired acquisitions also honed by the oil embargo imposed by the USA, which made it dependent on the resources of other countries. Many in Japan believed the conflict with the Americans could be resolved through negotiations but military leaders insisted on stepping up military offensive in Asia. When Germany was carrying out its Blitzkrieg in Europe m Japan was doing the same in Asia having control over large parts of Asia including Taiwan and Manchuria. But uncontrolled military offensives inevitably end and so did Japan’s end in the Battle of Midway when its fleet was destroyed by American ships.[7] The atom bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki preceded by the declaration of war by the Soviet Union broke Japan’s military might forcing it to surrender to America in 1945.   The international War Crimes Tribunal sentenced Japanese military leaders to death. Japan’s militarism blinded it to the might of America’s military might and made it underestimate Chinese resistance. Its territories were taken under American control.   The Japanese also miscalculated the output of the war machinery in America which h outrivaled that of Japan’s. Truly Japan’s military leaders had become complacent and could not realize that they were going through a death wish which was to almost obliterate Japan (the atom bombings) from the face of the Earth.[8] In conclusion it should be stated that one good outcome was Japan’s access to American industrial technology and Japan’s subsequent rise to the world’s major industrial leader. Today, largely because of this Japan is also a technology leader and makes business conquests in place of military ones through its electronics goods ad cars. Japan wages its own internal battles with rising economics problems and unemployment and job cutbacks but the collective Japanese psyche has grown wise to blind nationalism and tries to blend with the world. It now enjoys a stable democracy and single party rule with its armed forces under the command of the prime Minister, Japan has no need for war and a Pacifist constitution has m in fact been built into the Constitution which forces it to renounce aggression and armed conflict .this was bequeathed to it by America after the .defeat of 1945. Japan is well on its way to new millennium bidding goodbye to its aggression and the February Incident will always remain a blot on its history and its pacifist character. Bibliography: Goddard, J; Nation Management: Making the Most Out of It (Christchurch: Howard Price. 2006) pp 433-5 Gervers, V; Japan at War (Melbourne: HBT Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 2000) pp 167 Knott, P; Analysis of US Wars (Dhaka: Dasgupta Chatterjee 2005) pp 188-9 Kumar, H; Justice of Winners: Win Some, Lose None (Auckland: HBT Brooks Ltd. 2005) pp 334 Manning, C S; Principals and Practices of War Industry: Trade of Death (Christchurch: National Book Trust. 2004) pp 279 Powell, M; Anatomy of Modern Crusades: Independence to WWII (Wellington: ABP Ltd 2001) pp 49-53 Prawer, H A; Kingdom of Japan (Dunedin: Allied Publishers 2004) pp 221-5 Tyerman, J; Invention of the Japanese Great War (Dunedin: Allied Publications 2001) pp 233-37 [1] Tyerman, J; Invention of the Japanese Great War (Dunedin: Allied Publications 2001) pp 233-37 [2] Prawer, H A; Kingdom of Japan (Dunedin: Allied Publishers 2004) pp 221-5 [3] Goddard, J; Nation Management: Making the Most Out of It (Christchurch: Howard Price. 2006) pp 433-5 [4] Gervers, V; Japan at War (Melbourne: HBT Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 2000) pp 167 [5] Manning, C S; Principals and Practices of War Industry: Trade of Death (Christchurch: National Book Trust. 2004) pp 279 [6] Powell, M; Anatomy of Modern Crusades: Independence to WWII (Wellington: ABP Ltd 2001) pp 49-53 [7] Knott, P; Analysis of US Wars (Dhaka: Dasgupta Chatterjee 2005) pp 188-9 [8] Kumar, H; Justice of Winners: Win Some, Lose None (Auckland: HBT Brooks Ltd. 2005) pp 334

Friday, September 20, 2019

Binge Drinking In Teenagers Health And Social Care Essay

Binge Drinking In Teenagers Health And Social Care Essay Anti social behaviours such as binge drinking in teenagers and young adults have been a serious issue and also contributed significantly to the mortality rates in United Kingdom. Binge drinking is associated with non modifiable risk factors such as age, sex and modifiable genetic predisposition as well as modifiable risk factors such as smoking, violence, rape and drug abuse. The control of binge drinking among these young adults is very important in preventing any form of risk factors that could damage their lifestyle or become a threat to the environment and family. Proposals have been made by the UK Department of Health (DoH) regarding the current concerns of risk and increasing prevalence of binge drinking among teenagers and young adults. Possible options for action have been proposed and available pieces of evidence are used to discuss issues such as education, communication, working with the Government and also working with the local industry. It is recommended that there should be an electronic assessment application that will help to generate electronic feedback similar to that of the e-Nudge trial is been developed and adopted. It is also proposed that if the Government could work with the law abiding forces in UK to reduce binge drinking among these subgroups It is proposed that further research should be carried out to investigate the cost effectiveness of these recommendations and the feasibility. Background Surveys with teenagers in the United States, United Kingdom and other European countries have documented that young and adolescent is prevalent in binge drinking. Cahalan and Crossley (1969) defined binge drinking as taking at least five alcoholic drinks consumed during a session. Comprehensive College Alcohol Study (CAS) in Harvard School of Public Health conducted a research and also re-defined binge drinking as five drinks for men and four drinks for women on a single occasion within the past two weeks (Davenport, Wechsler, Dowdall, Castillo and Moeykens, 2004). Binge drinking is a major public health and safety problem and its associated with health risks such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular heart disease (CVD), and the short term effects includes violence, accidents, rape cases and anti-social behaviours (ASB). Anti-social behaviours (ASB) have significantly contributed to global mortality and have been projected to cause more damage if not controlled. For so many youths and teenagers in UK and which are also influenced by peer pressure, they have chosen binge drinking as part of their lifestyle and these lifestyle could be relaxing with friends in an open environment, pub, party or at home. Home office has done two studies which was the relationship between binge drinking and the risk factors among 18-25 years. The first study (Richardson and Budd, 2003) examined the relationship between an offensive behaviour and binge drinking while the second study (Engineer et al., 2003) was to quantify between the social context of binge drinking and the key findings were: Most of the binge drinkers were men (48%) than women (31%); There was a strong relationship between been offensive and drinking, and also causing strong violent crimes after been drunk; Most of the binge drinkers (60%) admitted been involved in a bad behaviour after or during drinking which was compared to the 25% of regular drinkers. The present large, population based study attempts to address the issues on the strong relationship between subjective health and binge drinkers. Options for action There are a number of approaches that could be adopted in implementing the new programme. These options can only be effective and also reduce the current concern in binge drinking. It is also set out that these options will have to work with the industry, law enforcement agencies, communities, and the Government. They are: An improvement on the enforcement on young people drinking in public places and environments; Working with the industries To support the teenagers in making a wise decision on alcohol These options will need the Government to seriously intervene only if the Governments intervention is coherent, strategic, sustained and measured. Review of Evidence It is an illegal act in UK when an underage (under 18) buys or goes to the pub to have alcohol either if the alcohol is bought by them or somebody else that is older than 18 years old. The current Government guidelines by National Health Service (NHS) states that the normal intake of alcohol for that of men is 3-4 units in a day while that of women is 2-3 units in a day. College of physicians (2002) had a report on binge drinking and defined binge drinking as the intake of alcohol either a man or a woman of 10 or more than 10 units in a single session. The new national alcohol harm-reduction strategy defined binge drinking as having alcohol of 6 units or more for women and 8 or more units for men. More than half according to Strategy Unit (2003) of the young adults take alcohol below 14/21 units per week, 6.4 million people binge drink up to 35/50 units per week, 1.8 million people binge drink more than 35/50 units per week. It was also recorded that the young adults within the age of 16-24 are classified as binge drinkers having the percentage of men (50%) and women (42%). The public is concerned about this shameful act and the Government has to do something about it because this kind of drinking put young and teenagers at risk as well as creating problems for others which could possibly lead to crime. Fuller E (2006) had a proportion where the age range of 11-15 years old that drink on the street and in public places has increased from 21% to 31% in the year 1999 to 2006. In addition for the Government to intervene to take responsibility of young people drinking in public, the Home office will have to issue an immediate order to the police and the parents whose children that constantly drink in public will also have to be questioned so that conditions like strict monitoring of the childs behaviour will need to be met. The central role of the alcohol industry is very substantial and variable identity in the UK society and economy. Binge drinking does not only make an individual vulnerable to danger and harm but also damage the health of the person which could lead to both short and long term illness. For over the last century record, the alcohol consumption in UK has raised which makes UK to fall in the middle compared to other European countries. The approach of working with the breweries or industries requires a strong relationship between families, communities, the public services such as the National Health Service (NHS) and the police, the individuals and the Government. There is also a clear view when Government gets to work with the industry at a national level to introduce a scheme or a law that would operate to a set of standards that will help to promote best practice in England. This plan can only be put up as a law in different ways and also implemented. They are; To make sure that the retailers do not sell to an underage and anybody found or caught doing such will have to face an immediate prosecution. Implement the use of Proof of Age Standard Scheme (PASS) amongst the young adults, retailers and the parents. To support the police to close down any pub/shop when it has been identified for creating problems in the public. Young people are also highly influenced by alcohol adverts either on TV or in the radio which is also the key points to address binge drinking amongst teenagers and young adults. The work of Drink aware Trust in an example that has been done in the UK to help fight binge drinking. The young teenagers themselves needs to be encouraged, advised and supported when making a decision on taking alcohol. They need to be told on the effect, harm, the potential risk and also receive all the appropriate information about binge drinking. The need for a campaign or a seminar on moderate drinking and not drink to get drunk. The aim should be about bringing change in culture, a delay in age when young people should start drinking and to those who has chosen to engage in drinking, to be advised on the lower risk way which should be the target. The Government should also reach out to children and young people in schools about alcohol education and also drugs. Recommendation Based on all that has been discussed, the following recommendations should be considered: Improving the identification process in the health system because it presents variety of access points for those with binge drinking; The use of screening and brief intervention for identifying the level of alcohol consumption using a questionnaire as a tool for the survey; and The approach of enforcement which will be a clear legal framework preventing the sale of alcohol to under 21s. The Government can introduce a national identity cards scheme, useful and secure way of providing and determining age when young adults or teenagers wish to purchase age restricted products such as alcohol. The increase in awareness regarding the importance of age, environment, and gender should also be promoted especially amongst ethnic minority groups and the socially deprived through culture and language sensitive health education programs and adverts. Implementation of policy to encourage the risk behind binge drinking for all young adults in the UK should also be considered. These would ultimately assist the Minister of State for Public health and Department of Health to reduce binge drinking. Recommendation Based on all that has been discussed, the following recommendations should be considered; Stopping young and teenagers in drinking anywhere that is public by giving the police to arrest under 18s who drink and act anti-socially, issue guidance to the health and young adults services, the police to also fasten their approach in dealing with public drinking by the underages in UK; Teaming with the industry to encourage a tough prosecution on those caught breaking the licensing conditions, the Government also should support the local authorities, police and communities to spot hotspots that create problems; Establish a guideline on alcohol and teenagers; Support and establish a strong relationship with parents; The Government should also have an alcohol and drug education in schools and also encourage those that have already started drinking the harm, potential long and short term risk involved in drinking.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Analysis of Spring In War Time by Edith Nesbit :: essays research papers

Spring In War-Time by Edith Nesbit is a very moving poem. It describes nature in such a beautiful way, and then goes on to say how, to her, it is not beautiful anymore. She writes about her loss by saying things such as Where last year we used to go Where we shall not go again. Nesbit explains how she and her partner used to do lovely things together like go on walks in the woods and enjoy the nature. Her partner sadly died in the war, and since then, she can not appreciate nature's beauty anymore. Life seems to have stopped for her but in reality, life goes on. Just like last year's violets, too, But they have no scent this year. She is a casualty of the war, not physically, but mentally. She is wounded emotionally by the loss of her loved one. This poem is set out like a nursery rhyme, its message is simple. The message reads that, in her eyes, war has ruined everything that used to be beautiful. War is unnatural and cruel, completely the opposite of nature. Spring In War-Time reflects on the memories she had with her partner. It shows how they can never do things which they used to because war has taken him away, tearing them apart forever. It's obvious it is going to take Nesbit a long time to let it go, if not never. All on the verses have four stresses per line, with a rhythm and a rhyme, except for the last verse. Presently red roses blown Will make all the garden gay? Not yet have the daisies grown On your clay. This last verse just stops. Without warning, it just finishes and you are left thinking, "Oh..." It is short and it leaves the poem sounding slightly un-finished, like Nesbit?s life with her partner. It stops suddenly like his death, his death was sudden. This last verse tells us that he has only recently died in the war and been buried, becoming part of nature, not just an observer of it. Nesbit has all her memories of him to hold onto mentally, but physically all she has is his gravestone and maybe a few photos.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

PEST Analysis (Political, Economic, Social & Technical Analysis) Essay

PEST Analysis (Political, Economic, Social & Technical Analysis) A PEST analysis (also sometimes called STEP, STEEP or PESTLE analysis) looks at the external business environment. In fact, it would be better to call this kind of analysis a business environmental analysis but the acronym PEST is easy to remember and so has stuck. PEST stands for Political, Economic, Sociocultural and Technological. (Technological factors in this case, include ecological and environmental aspects - the second E in STEEP and PESTLE, while the L in PESTLE stands for legal). The analysis examines the impact of each of these factors (and their interplay with each other) on the business. The results can then be used to take advantage of opportunities and to make contingency plans for threats when preparing business and strategic plans. You need to consider each PEST factor as they all play a part in determining your overall business environment. Thus, when looking at political factors you should consider the impact of any political or legislative changes that could affect your business. If you are operating in more than one country then you will need to look at each country in turn. Political factors include aspects such as laws on maternity rights, data protection and even environmental policy: these three examples alone have an on impact employment terms, information access, product specification and business processes in many businesses globally. Obviously politicians don't operate in a vacuum...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Effects of Fast Food on Your Body

The objective of this research proposal is to closely examine the effects of fast food in one’s with relations to obesity and to find the truth behind these scrumptious but unhealthful cuisines. In America today, fifty percent of the money used to buy food by consumers goes into these fast food restaurants. With this percentage, the consumption of fast food is extremely high. Studies have shown that an excessive intake of fast food can lead to an unhealthy diet and can cause obesity. For my preliminary investigation, factors will be revealed of the truth behind fast food thus a research question will be generated and directed towards my final research project. All over the world, at every corner one is bound to bump into a fast food restaurant, whether it is McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, or even Taco Bell. From my initial research, I found numerous articles, journals, and a documentary proving that these â€Å"convenience† foods can lead to obesity. The intake of fast food has greatly increased in the past 20-30 years. Since the increase, obesity has become an epidemic. For many years, society has been exposed to fast food for countless number of times. From this, obesity is becoming a major issue in the United States. For many people, it is the easiest and fastest way to get a meal. Hence the word â€Å"fast food. † In addition, the public finds these foods as satisfying and inexpensive. In today’s society, people are always â€Å"on-the-go† and therefore try to find the quickest way to grab a bite. Many average people go to a fast food restaurant to take advantage of its convenience and reasonable price. From experience, fast food has been a â€Å"replacement† when home cooked meals were not around. There have been consecutive times when my body has digested a McDonald’s meal for more than twice a day. These meals substituted the breakfast, lunch, and dinner of the day. From then, an unhealthy diet was about to emerge. As a precaution, it is best to know the negative factors of excessive intake on fast food. In the book â€Å"Fast Food Nation† by Eric Schlosser, he states that the United States spends about half of their money eating at fast food restaurants. Their all-time favorite fast food chain is none other than McDonald’s. It is now the biggest and well-known chain in the world. McDonald’s holds about ninety percent of the country’s new jobs. Many consumers are unaware of how much they spend daily at these restaurants. â€Å"Hundreds of millions of people buy fast food every day without giving it much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They rarely consider where this food came from, how it was made, and what it is doing to the community around them. † (Schlosser, 10) Schlosser wrote â€Å"Fast Food Nation† to inform readers the truth that lies beneath those mouth-watering patties, flavor enhancing condiments, â€Å"healthy† salads, and soft buns. Fast foods can be just as addicting as drugs. Everyone knows that too much of anything is bad for the body. According to a journal article entitled â€Å"Fast Food: unfriendly and unhealthy†, the author, Steen Stender, states that, â€Å"Individuals who had meals at fast-food restaurants more than two times a week gained 4. 5 kg more weight and had a 104% greater increase in insulin resistance, at both baseline and follow-up, than individuals who ate less than one fast food meal per week† (887). From this study, it shows that fast food can have a great impact in one’s body. Eating fast food uncontrollably can lead to obesity, but it can also lead to type 2 diabetes. â€Å"Fast Food Linked to Child Obesity† discusses about children who have a great intake on fast food can lead to obesity. From this amount, it has given them more calories than the usual causing them to gain about six more pounds per year. The article also states that about one-third of the United State’s youth population is obese. It proves that there really is a factor in too much intake on fast foods. In the article â€Å"Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? † by Robert W. Jeffery, it testifies that obesity has increased in the past 20-30 years. These increases are due to the fact of physical and social factors, and not biological. A telephone survey was conducted and concluded that children eating at fast food restaurants has made them obese and increased their Body Mass Index (BMI). Another journal article found was â€Å"The Link between Fast Food and the Obesity Epidemic† by Dustin A. Frazier. Some of the factors that have caused obesity among children who eat too much at fast food restaurants include the lack of exercise, increased calorie intake, and the laziness performance due to technology. The significance of technology today is that children have become victims of laziness thus they lack the proper exercise needed to stay fit and healthy. For those reasons mentioned above, what are the factors of excessive intake on fast food? One does not realize that consuming too much fast food can lead to a more serious problem. These problems can include an unhealthy balanced diet which can lead to type 2 diabetes and obesity. One should take extra precaution next time when ordering a Big Mac. Also, has the government taken any actions to stop this epidemic happening? Are there laws made for fast food restaurants to protect themselves from consumer who wishes to sue these restaurants because of an unhealthy menu? There must be some defense that helps these fast food restaurants stay open although they have an unhealthy menu that can trigger the body one way or another. As the old saying goes, â€Å"You are what you eat. † Therefore, one should caution themselves on what they consume into their body. References Frazier, Dustin A. â€Å"The Link between Fast Food and the Obesity Epidemic. † Health Matrix: Journal of Law Medicine. 17. 2 (2007) 291-317. Holguin, Jamie. Fast Food Linked to Child Obesity. † CBS News: Health. 5 January 2003. < http://www. cbsnews. com/stories/2004/01/05/health/main591325. shtml>. Jeffrey, Robert W. , et al. â€Å"Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? † The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 25 January 2006. < http://www. pubmedcent ral. nih. gov/articlerender. fcgi? artid=1397859>. Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton Muffin Company, 2001. Stender, Steen, et al. â€Å"Fast Food: Unfriendly and Unhealthy. † International Journal of Obesity. 31. 6 (2007) 887-890.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Explore the reasons why Othello orders the death of Desdemona Essay

Othello is a play about love, hatred, death and deception. Othello is partly betrayed by flaw in his own character. He orders the death of Cassio (his friend and ensign) and Desdemona (his wife) for a number of reasons. Chief among these are is that he is rash, violent and aggressive. He is an angry man who believes whatever Iago tells him with blind faith. He is confused by Iago’s tricks and does as he is told without thinking about its consequences. He is impulsive. He is acting like a true moore (or as what people consider him to be) in Shakespeare days. Othello has the tendency to believe whatever Iago tells him. Even before he is shown any evidence to prove that Desdemona is cheating on him. He starts to hate her â€Å"Now do I see ’tis true.† He turns a blind eye on the fact that he has not seen what the proof is yet. The proof could have been so insignificant that Othello would not trusted it, however in this case the evidence have been planted to mislead Othello. Othello is impulsive. He is rash as fire for numerous reasons. He doesn’t trust his wife (who he married with his happiness) or trust his friend, Iago, Who is his enemy. He believes that his wife is cheating on him and becomes enraged very easily.† I’ll tear her whole to pieces.† It tells us that his intentions aren’t very good. Rather than killing her he could â€Å"Shake he off to beggarly divorcement† and let her live her life. Furthermore, after Iago has completely misled him, Othello finds no other way other than thinking and ordering the death of Cassio. â€Å"Let me hear thee say that Cassio’s not alive.† He acts hastily without letting Cassio stand trail nor defend himself. He is sure that Desdemona and Cassio have become disloyal to him. The audience that Othello is an angry man and â€Å"rash as fire† by his behaviour towards Iago. â€Å"If thou dost slander her and torture me then thou hast, better been born a dog than answer my wak’d wrath†. This show that Othello can’t comprehend it that his wife might be cheating on him so he is taking his anger out on others. An example of that is he takes his anger out on Iago, who he believes to be his friend. However, he is not â€Å"rash† as fire because he resists the urges. He shows this when he is in conversation with Iago. â€Å"I’ll not believe it†. Here Othello is trying to imply that he doesn’t believe Iago fully until he sees the ‘evidence’ in the form of the handkerchief. This shows that he still trust s his wife. He is saying she is as pure as a goddess and if she isn’t then heaven isn’t so perfect when he says â€Å"if she be false then heaven mock itself†. He also proves he trusts his wife. â€Å"I’ll se before I doubt†. He still wants evidence before doing anything. â€Å"When I doubt, prove†. This shows that Othello doesn’t have complete faith in Iago. The audience cannot really blame Othello for being â€Å"rash as fire† as Iago keeps provoking his temper. Iago convinces Othello of Desdemona’s and Cassio’s guilt by using different techniques. To convince Othello, Iago plants circumstantial evidences in order to make Othello think that something is really going on between Cassio and Desdemona. He steals Desdemona’s handkerchief and leaves it in Cassio’s bedroom. â€Å"Such a handkerchief did I see Cassio wipe his beard with†. This helps Iago prove Desdemona’s infidelity as it will give Othello evidence. â€Å"Trifle†¦are to the jealous confirmation strong as proofs of holy writ†. Furthermore, Iago is reticence and implies he is withholding information. He acts like he doesn’t want to say anything. â€Å"Should you do so†¦speech should fall in vile success†. This entices Othello to say â€Å"I pray thee speak to me as to thy thinking†. This makes it seem like Iago is trustworthy because he seems to want to protect his friend, when really he wants to get Othello to hate him. â€Å"Oft my jealousy shapes faults that are not†. Iago start to lie outright. However he only does this after he has largely convinced Othello. He says that he heard Cassio talking to Desdemona in his sleep. â€Å"Sweet Desdemona †¦ let us hide our love†. This is a blatant lie but Othello is fooled and believes him. He falls into Iago’s trap. It works as he creates hideous images of Cassio and Desdemona. This is when Othello for the first time concludes that Desdemona is ‘gone’. His trust and faith in his marital happiness fades into the belief he has been rejected by Desdemona. A technique that works very well with Othello is when Iago implies he knows more than he does, making leading statements. He first introduces the topic by deliberately leading a question for Othello to ask rather than stating the full facts thus playing on Othello’s paranoia. â€Å"Did Michael Cassio, when you woo’d my lady know of your love?† This makes Othello wonder why he would want to know that. He later serves to make Othello think of Desdemona. Iago is clever and subtle in his tricks; Othello cannot be blamed for believing him. Later, when Othello is convinced, he reinforces his ‘honesty’ by saying â€Å"perhaps you mind might change†. He does this because he knows Othello won’t. Another skill which works well is making Othello angry on purpose. Iago uses graphical language to make Othello picture Desdemona and Cassio in compromising situation. â€Å"Would’st thou†¦ grossily grape on behold her topp’ed?† This gets Othello worked up. He uses shocking and profane language such as â€Å"prime as goat, hot as monkey† by saying this Othello believes Iago and becomes all senseless and wrathful. â€Å"Thou had’st better been born a dog than answer my wak’d rath†. This makes Othello irrational and witless. The audience may also consider the social and historical background to be a reason. During the time when the play was written, many events were taking place (we can see hints of this in the play). When Othello was convinced that Desdemona was cheating him, he decided he would kill her. Divorce was not an option for him as the pope, who was at time was the most important man in Europe, would not allow Othello to divorce Desdemona without a trial. Othello didn’t want to do this as he would have to prove Desdemona guilty of infidelity. Othello didn’t want to do this as he still loved Desdemona with all his heart and thought Desdemona cheated him. Another point we must consider is that when the play was written there was a good deal of racism and mis-trust for non-Christians. Shakespeare’s audience may have seen moors as barbarous heathens. This would explain his propensity for violence. Consequently coloured people such as Venetians were given fewer rights as they were regarded as barbarians. Such barbarians would react violently, because they were uncivilised. â€Å"O blood, blood, blood!† Othello’s Moorish heritage may also have influenced his anger at the loss of the handkerchief as he actually believed in its magic. â€Å"Tis true. There is a magic in the web of it†. Othello having been a soldier since he was 7 and then a general, meaning he spent his life in the army and therefore he didn’t know women well. He was also an outsider to the Venetian society and so it made it easier for Iago to convince Othello. â€Å"In Venice they do let god see the pranks they do not show their husbands†. A number of factors contribute to the killing of Desdemona and Cassio. One of the major reasons influencing Othello’s decision is Iago’s numerous lies and his way of manipulating and confusing Othello. These play a major part as, if Iago hadn’t lied to Othello, he wouldn’t have thought his wife betrayed him. Another factor that led to Desdemona’s and Cassio’s killing is that the fact that in his personal life he knew nothing about women. Iago took advantage of this and lies outright. Iago’s lies wouldn’t have worked if Othello had trust in him. If divorce was an option he probably would have considered it letting Desdemona live her life. Another reason that Othello was harsh was because that’s what moors were considered to be.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Coach Carter Essay

Coach Carter wasn’t your average coach. He was also a teacher and mentor for these young boys. He gave these boys a sense of hope in life that no one ever gave them. The book has sold over 3 million copies. The movie has made approximately 42 million dollars as a movie. Coach Carter novel and film both proved to be a huge hit all over the world, but most important to people who enjoy basketball and love the game. While I was reading the book you could clearly see that the movie and the book plots are relatively similar, but their are a few minor differences between the book and the movie. Although their quite similar Coach Carter movie and the Coach Carter book are pronounced. â€Å"Coach Carter† movie was an excellent representation of the book, but had a few modifications in order to clarify several concepts of the book which was written by Jasmine Jones. To interpret this idea, Coach Carter movie was altered so the viewers could understand the ideas that Jasmine Jones wrote, and also the viewers could understand the movie perspective side. This is where we see many difference arise. To illustrate this point, this book was written as a whole. What I mean by that it had a lot of first person narrative between the characters. (Coach Carter, Ken Carter, Kenyon Stone and the rest of the basketball team.) When watching the movie there are several voice overs over the characters in the movie. This is where their are different lines that fit with what the characters are saying, but there’s no way of showing it when you are reading the book. Although in the movie there are several types of voice overs the actions that the characters use to incorpor ate into the movie doesn’t really follow along the same lines with what they are saying in the book but has that general idea to it. This is clearly shown that you can’t see what the different type of actions or movement when you are reading the book. This leads to my next point, Mr.Carter was trying to teach the boys good values. Respect, discipline, responsibility and commitment. Their boys were great ball players but on the other hand was not keeping up in their own education. There are several cut scenes showing the basketball gym and seeing each individual player practicing or even a live game going on. The cut scenes that were incorporated in the movie were much different to the book the reason being  is that not only the book is followed the exact same way as the movie there are always minor differences. Although you can’t see it visually by reading it and understanding the settings between the book and movie there are major differences between the two. On the other hand, The Coach Carter Book and the Coach Carter movie similarities were unquestionable. â€Å"His own son which he has placed at St. Francis, who would rather go to Richmond High so he can play for his father (Coach Carter). This places a hard decision on Coach Carter and has a big affect on both him and his family. It creates arguments and some tension between father and son. Coach Carter being the main teacher in the film that is strict and formal, with some of his actions proving to have both good and bad results. His son did end up going to Richmond High school as the author states it in the book and which was shown in the movie. In the book and movie there were a lot of plots that corresponded with the book and movie. Coach Carter being the main character is set in Richmond, California in the USA. It focuses on an inner-city public school called Richmond High, which is in a very low-like status and has a reputation for not having many students go off to college. Most of the scenes were based of this high school and most importantly took place in this area and high school. The detail in the movie was outstanding to be more specific the detail the court had, it had that shine to the court to make it more authentic and the area that they it was located. But most importantly the characters that took place in the book and movie. Although you can’t visualize the looking of the characters by understanding the detail the author has said you can really see the similarities. In the book and movie there was a lot of school failure. In terms of not meeting the requirement, on average each player who played with Richmond high school their average was a 2.3 gpa. Mr Carter (The Coach) wanted a 3.5 gpa. This grade level had to be reached or if not he would close down the gym and stop them from playing basketball. Summing up, Coach Carter book and movie was outstanding. Their similarities between the two were striking. The movie incorporated the majority of the book but did not follow the same exact lines as the book. The movie didn’t want to express the same story as the book that’s were the differences  really played a good role to determine the similarities and differences. It is evident that the Coach Carter book and the Coach Carter movie had much more similarities than differences between the two.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Books And Reading Essay

Topical Vocabulary 1. Categorisation: Children’s and adult’s books; travel books and biography; romantic and historical novels; thrillers; detective stories; science fiction/fantasy; non-fiction; pulp fiction. absorbing; adult; amusing; controversial; dense; depressing; delightful; dirty; disturbing; dull; fascinating; gripping; moralistic; obscene; outrageous; profound; whimsical; unputdownable. 2. Books and their parts: paperback and hardback; binding; cover; jacket; title; epigraph; preface; the contents list; fly leaf; bookplate; blurb; a beautifully printed book; a tome bound in leather; a book with dense print/ with loose pages. 3. Reading habits: to form a reading habit early in life; to read silently/incessantly/avidly/voratiously; to read curled up in chair; to read a child/oneself to sleep; to be lost/absorbed in a book; to devour books; to dip into/glance over/pore over/thumb through a book; to browse through newspapers and periodicals; to scan/ skim a magazine; an avid/alert/keen reader. 4. Library facilities: reading rooms and reference sections; the subject/author/title/on-line catalogue; the enquiry desk; computer assisted reference service; to borrow/renew/loan books; CDs and video tapes; rare books; to keep books that are overdue; books vulnerable to theft; to suspend one’s membership; to be banned from the library. I. Use the thematic vocabulary in answering the following questions: 1. Which books are you reading now? 2. Where is your favourite place to read? 3. Who is your favourite novelist? 4. Who is your favourite character? 5. Which contemporary author do you most admire? 6. Which is the first book you can recommend reading? 7. Which school text did you most enjoy? 8. What is your favourite children’s book? 9. Which book would you like to see filmed? 10. What is the most difficult book you have ever read? II. Work in groups. Find out about the last book each of your partners has read and make notes on these points: Author and title Type of book and what’s it about Reason for liking it Reason for recommending it to others III. Work in pairs. Choose the best alternative to complete these sentences: 1. Oliver Twist is a classic work of English †¦ . Literature non-fiction letters editions 2. The plot of the story was very exciting, but I didn’t find the †¦ . Persons people characters figurers 3. This book is a special edition for foreign readers, so there’s a(n) †¦ . Appendix glossary introduction preface table of contents 4. A novel is usually divided into several †¦ . Chapters units sections passages 5. If you need to find some information in a non-fiction book, look in the †¦ . Atlas blurb catalogue diary index review 6. Cambridge University Press is the †¦of the book you’re reading. Author editor printer publisher 7. A great novel has a good plot and a strong †¦ . Communication meaning message significance 8. The book was marvelously †¦ and it was a joy to read. Stylistic tedious well-written wonderful 9. Ernest Hemingway is one of my †¦ American writers. Best favourite ideal most popular 10. The thriller was so exciting that I couldn’t †¦ . Let it down look it up pick it up put it down 11. Even the †¦ characters in the book are really interesting. Less minor small tiny 12. I’d like to †¦ that book when you’ve read it. Borrow hire lend loan IV. In these sentences three alternatives are correct and two are wrong. Choose the best three alternatives for each: 1. The †¦ character in the book is called Oliver. Central main principal principle top 2. I enjoy her books because her style is so very †¦ . Dull entertaining readable tedious true-to-life 3. I found that the characters in the story were very †¦ . Amusing believable informative likeable thrilling 4. There were so many twists in the plot that I didn’t really think it was †¦ . Accurate authentic convincing realistic true-to-life 5. She doesn’t read any fiction because she prefers reading †¦ . Biographies short stories textbooks non-fiction science fiction 6. I can’t †¦ books like those – they just send me to sleep. Bear carry enjoy stand suffer V. Fill in the gaps in these sentences with suitable words: 1. You can borrow books from a †¦ or buy them from a †¦ . 2. A writer can also be called an †¦ . 3. I can’t afford to buy the book in hardback, so I’ll wait till it comes out in †¦ . 4. I can’t remember the †¦ of the book, but I know it had a yellow †¦ . 5. A book that tells somebody’s life story is called a †¦ . VI. Match each word in the column with the explanation: Ballad, biography, novel, drama, poem, fairy tale, poetry, story, rhyme, novelette a) a story in prose, long enough to fill in one or more volumes, about either imaginary or historical people; b) piece of creative writing in verse form, especially one expressing deep feeling or noble thought in beautiful language, composed with the desire to communicate an experience; c) simple song or poem, especially one that tells an old story; d) the art of a poet, poems; e) tale about fairies of imaginary origin; f) branch of literature dealing with the lives of persons; g) play for the theatre, radio or TV; h) verse for small children characterized by sameness of sound of the ending or two more words at the ends of lines of verse; i) short novel (story in prose); j) account of past or imaginary events. VII. Read the following extract and make with your groupmates the list of the books you would like to read while travelling: The Book- Bag Some people read for instruction, ad some for pleasure, but not a few read from habit. I belong to that company. Let us admit that reading is just a drug that we cannot get along without. Books are necessary to me and I never traveled far without enough reading matter. But when I am starting on a long journey the problem is really great. I have learnt my lesson. Once I fell ill in a small town in Java and had to stay in bed for three months. I came to the end of all the books I had brought with me and knowing no Dutch had to buy the schoolbooks from which intelligent Javanese, I suppose, got knowledge of French and German. So I read again after twenty-five years the plays of Goethe, the fables of La Fontaine and the tragedies of Racine. I have the greatest admiration for Racine, but I admit that to read his plays one after the other requires a certain effort in a person who is ill. Since then I have made a point of travelling with a large sack full of books for every possible occasion and every mood. There are books of all kinds. Volumes of verse, novels, philosophical works, critical studies (they say books about books are useless, but they certainly make very pleasant reading), biographies, history; there are books to read when you are ill and books to read when your brain want something to work at; there are books that you have always wanted to read but in the hurry of life at home have never found time to; there are books to read at sea; there are books for bad weather; there are books chosen solely for their length, which you take along when you have o travel light, and there are the books you can read when you can read nothing else. (from W. Somerset Maugham) VIII. See how many authors and titles you can match: For Whom the Bell Tolls Charlotte Bronte A Perfect Stranger Charles Dickens Airport Walter Scott Sister Carrie Dan Brown Tom Sawyer Daphne du Maurier Pride and Prejudice Arthur Hailey Martin Eden Danielle Steel Of Human Bondage Ernest Hemingway Alice in Wonderland Mark Twain Ivanhoe Lewis Carroll Rebecca Jack London David Copperfield Theodore Dreiser Jane Eyre Somerset Maugham The Da Vinci Code Iris Murdock Black Prince Jane Austen IX. Read the text and agree or disagree with the statements below: An English author once wrote: â€Å"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed or digested. † This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. Most travel books are to be tasted; it’s enough to dip into them and read bits here and there. If you are fond of crime stories (A. Christie, G. Simenon and the rest of modern favourites) you will read them quickly, you’ll â€Å"swallow† them. And then there are books that you’ll read slowly and carefully. If a book’s on an important subject, and a subject you’re interested in, you’ll want to chew and digest it. And you’ll want to weigh what the author says and consider his ideas and arguments. 1) Reading English fiction with a dictionary is very dull. 2) If the book is very exciting, you â€Å"swallow† it. 3) Nobody reads reference books for relaxation. 4) Reading thick science fiction books is tiring. 5) Very intelligent people don’t read detective stories. 6) Non-fiction books can’t be inspirational. 7) Travel books give you a lot of useful information. 8) Unfortunately many young people are not in the habit of reading poetry. 9) Great book-lovers never lend their books. 10) Lots of people buy books for their bright and beautiful jackets. 11) Bookcases and bookshelves are the best kind of decoration for a living-room. 12) It’s of no use collecting book issues of magazines and newspapers. X. Read the following passage and say if you agree with the author: Some people think that as more and more people have their TV-sets in their homes, fewer and fewer people will buy books and newspapers. Why read an article in the newspaper, when the TV news can bring you the information in a few minutes and with pictures? Why read a novel, when a play o television can tell you the same story with colour picture and action? Why read the biographies of famous men and women, when an hour-long television programme can tell you all that you want to know? Television has not killed reading, however. Today, newspapers and magazines sell in very large numbers. And books of every kind are sold more than ever before. Books are still a cheap way to get information and entertainment. Although some books with hard covers are expensive, many books are published today as paperback books, which are reasonably cheap. A paperback novel, for example, is almost always cheaper than an evening at the cinema or theatre, and you can keep a book forever and read it many times. Books in the home are a wonderful source of knowledge and pleasure and some types of books should be in every home. Every home should have a good dictionary. Every home should have an atlas of the world, with large clear maps. It might be expensive, but a good encyclopedia is useful, too, because you can find information on any subject. In addition, it is useful to have on your bookshelves other non-fiction books such as history books, science textbooks, cookery books, books about medicine and health, etc. It is equally important to have some fiction on your shelves, too. Then you can relax with a good story, or from time to time you can take a book of poems off your shelves and read the thoughts and feelings of your favourite poets. XI. Choose the best answer according to the information in the passage: 1. Which is easier to get the news from? a) newspaper b) the television 2. Which is usually quicker? a) to read a biography of a famous person b) to watch a TV programme about a famous person 3. Which is usually cheaper? a) a paperback b) an evening at the cinema 4. Which is usually cheaper? a) a paperback b) a hardcover book 5. Which is it most important to have in your home? a) non-fiction books, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias b) fiction, such as novels, short stories and books of poems c) a mixture of both: good non-fiction and your favourite fiction XII. Discuss the following questions with your partners: 1. Were your parents worried that you watched too much TV when you were younger? 2. Did you find TV more interesting than anything else when you were at school? 3. Programmes on what subject do you like most of all? 4. Can you learn all you want on TV? 5. Do you think you get more information from books or TV? 6. Is it easier for you to memorize facts watching TV or reading books? 7. What do you like more to read books or to watch TV? XIII. Different people enjoy reading for different reasons. You will read five people saying why they like reading novels. Which of them says that novels a) are good for improving language skills? b) make them forget their problems? c) add some adventure to their life? d) teach them how to act in certain situations? e) increase their knowledge of other cultures? Reading Novels Ricky: Oh, I love novels, especially if they have a good plot. I started reading them when I was 12, encouraged by my parents who were hoping I’d be a writer myself. As it happened, reading so much at an early age had an effect on my studies, my compositions were always very good! And I still read at least one novel a week. My own life isn’t terribly exciting, apart from my work, which is very interesting, nothing much happens. In the novels I read there’s always a lot going on, lots of thrilling events, and I can share in the experiences and problems of the characters. Ella: Well, I used to read only short stories. That changed when I moved to a new city and found myself in a job I didn’t really enjoy. I would get back home at about 5p. m. , make some supper and sit down to read a novel for the rest of the evening. Many of them are pretty unbelievable stories, and not particularly well-written. It’s not as if you can imagine yourself in any of those situations, but the thing is they take my mind off whatever’s worrying me. I’ve had long conversations about this with friends who think I should read better quality staff, but I know what I’m doing. Sally: Why I like reading novels? I remember as an adolescent, I used to read novels just so as to see how my favourite characters solved their problems. I thought I could then apply that to my own problems! And I’m not ashamed to say that’s still the case, that’s what I’m looking for in the novels I read, and that’s my reason for reading them. I always choose novels that are in a clear style, because I find complicated language difficult. And also I like the stories to be about countries and cultures I know well, because then I can understand the characters better. Tom: I think reading novels is helping me a great deal in my studies, and although I haven’t got much spare time, I always make a point of reading a couple of hours in the evening. I’m in my last year at secondary school, and frankly, reading novels is an excellent way of learning how people live in other countries, how they communicate with each other, what problems they have. That’s why I prefer novels with characters who are true to life, not the ones who have impossible adventures. I’m very lucky because my best friend also likes reading and we can often discuss what we’ve both read. Alex: I like reading novels because they help me develop the ability to write myself. I used to have real problems in producing a good piece of writing. It wasn’t that I lacked ideas, no, my teachers always said my compositions were interesting. But I couldn’t get my tenses right. That’s where reading novels helped. I don’t think you can learn much about other things from novels, because the situations are usually so unrealistic. Some people say that’s OK, if your life’s boring, you need the excitement of fiction. Well, my life’s exciting enough, so that’s not my problem. 1. Do you like to read novels? Why? 2. Do you think that reading makes a person intelligent? XIV. Comment on the following: 1. A house looks gloomy and joyless without books. 2. If the book is worth reading it is worth buying. 3. Books and friends should be few and good.