Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Pro-Life Community Abortion is a very serious issue to many people. This issue is serious enough to separate people into groups of activists, pro-choice and pro-life. The pro-choice activists believe the fetus is not a living human being, so it is alright to abort it because it is not alive. The others, the pro-life activists, believe that the fetus is living, and to kill it would be considered murder. The word pro-life is more than just a word to them. To this group it is a belief, community and way of life. The idea of pro-life means that a fetus is an actual living human, even when it is in the womb. There are different stages a fetus goes through from the second the egg and sperm join to when the fetus is born. Those different stages are where people decide whether the fetus is living or not. Barbra Mackinnon, a professor at the University of San Francisco, states in her book Ethics, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, Ã¢â¬Å" In week 2 to week 8, organ systems such as the brain, spinal chord, heart, and digestive tube and certain structural features such as arm and leg buds begin and continue to developÃ¢â¬ (161). During those weeks, the brain and heart, the most vital elements of the human, body have started to develop. The community of pro-life activists believes that this is the beginning of human life. If abortion is wrong, how come murder of an unborn child be a charge is court? An example of this charge is the recent ruling on Scott Peterson. This trial has been on television for months, and everyone knows about it. Only recently did the jury just come up with a verdict on the case. Scott Peterson was charged with the murder of his wife Laci and their unborn child. He was charged with the murder of their unborn child, yet if anyone pays a doctor to have an abortion itÃ¢â¬â¢s legal. The law is uncertain if the killing of an unborn child is murder or not. The controversy over abortion has carried into this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s ... Free Essays on Pro-Life Community Free Essays on Pro-Life Community Pro-Life Community Abortion is a very serious issue to many people. This issue is serious enough to separate people into groups of activists, pro-choice and pro-life. The pro-choice activists believe the fetus is not a living human being, so it is alright to abort it because it is not alive. The others, the pro-life activists, believe that the fetus is living, and to kill it would be considered murder. The word pro-life is more than just a word to them. To this group it is a belief, community and way of life. The idea of pro-life means that a fetus is an actual living human, even when it is in the womb. There are different stages a fetus goes through from the second the egg and sperm join to when the fetus is born. Those different stages are where people decide whether the fetus is living or not. Barbra Mackinnon, a professor at the University of San Francisco, states in her book Ethics, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, Ã¢â¬Å" In week 2 to week 8, organ systems such as the brain, spinal chord, heart, and digestive tube and certain structural features such as arm and leg buds begin and continue to developÃ¢â¬ (161). During those weeks, the brain and heart, the most vital elements of the human, body have started to develop. The community of pro-life activists believes that this is the beginning of human life. If abortion is wrong, how come murder of an unborn child be a charge is court? An example of this charge is the recent ruling on Scott Peterson. This trial has been on television for months, and everyone knows about it. Only recently did the jury just come up with a verdict on the case. Scott Peterson was charged with the murder of his wife Laci and their unborn child. He was charged with the murder of their unborn child, yet if anyone pays a doctor to have an abortion itÃ¢â¬â¢s legal. The law is uncertain if the killing of an unborn child is murder or not. The controversy over abortion has carried into this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Reinforcer Assessment for Applied Behavior Analysis The foundational premise of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is that when behavior is reinforced, it is more likely to reoccur. When behavior is repeatedly reinforced, it becomes learned behavior. When we teach, we want students to learn specific behaviors. When students have problem behaviors, we need to teach alternative or replacement behavior. The replacement behavior needs to serve the same Function as the problem behavior, as the function is the way in which the behavior is reinforced for the child. In other words, if a behavior functions to provide a child attention, and the attention is reinforcing, the behavior will continue. Changeability of Reinforcement Many items can be reinforcing for a child. What is reinforcing is related to the function and the value of the function for a child. At different points certain different functions will have more importance than others to individual children: at some point, it may be attention, at another, it might be a preferred item or avoidance. For the purposes of Discrete Trials.Ã reinforcers that can be readily available and given and withdrawn quickly are the most effective. They may be toys, sensory items (spinning lights, musical toys, squishy toys/balls,) preferred items (dolls or Disney characters) or even escape, access to a break area. Sometimes edibles (candy or crackers) are used, but it is important that they are quickly paired with more appropriate social reinforcers. Not every item that is reinforcing for a child remains reinforcing. It may depend on the time of day, satiation, or the childs mood. Its important to have a rich menu of reinforcement that you can use with individual students when attempting to use ABA to teach or change behavior. Thats why it is important to attempt as many different kinds of reinforcers as possible, from preferred toys to sensory items. Ask About a Childs Preferences Parents and caregivers are a good place to start when exploring reinforcers. You can ask for the childs personal preferences: What does he/she enjoy doing when they can choose themselves? Does he/she have a favorite television character? Does he or she perseverate on that particular character? Parents and caregivers can give you some insight into the childs interests that will give you a sense of the kinds of preferences the child will find reinforcing. Non-Contingent Assessment The first step in assessing reinforcers is to give a child access to a number of items that The first step in assessing reinforcers is to give a child access to a number of items that young children would find appealing. Try to include items that the parent or caregiver has already indicated is a preferred item. It is called non-contingent because access to the reinforcer is not contingent on the childs behavior. To what items does the child gravitate? Note anything that the child picks up to assess again. Note any themes: is there a preference for musical toys, for specific characters? Does the child use cars or other toys appropriately? How does the child play with the toys? Does the child choose self-stimulation instead of toys? Can you engage the child in play with any of the toys? Once you have seen the child in the presence of the toys, you can list preferred items and eliminate those that they have shown little interest in. Structured Assessments Through your unstructured assessment, you have discovered which items your student gravitates to. Now, you want to find your most powerful (A ) reinforcers and which you will keep back for when the student is satiated with his or her A reinforcers. That is done by systematically laying small numbers of items (often just two) in front of the child and seeing what preferences he or she expresses. Concurrent Schedule Reinforcer Assessment: Two or more reinforcers are presented as a response to a target behavior, and the preference is noted. The reinforcers are switched out, to compare later with other reinforcers. Multiple Schedule Reinforcer Schedule: A reinforcer is used in contingent setting (such as social attention for appropriate play) and later in a non-contingent setting (without a requirement of appropriate play.) If the appropriate play increases despite the fact the child is getting non-contingent attention later in the day, it is assumed that the reinforcer is effective for increasing play. Progressive Ratio Schedule Reinforcer Assessment: A reinforcer is checked to see if it continues to increase response when response demand is increased. So, if a reinforcer stops eliciting the response you want when you expect more responses, it is not as powerful a reinforcer as you thought. If it does . . . stick with it. Reinforcement Suggestions Edibles: Edibles are never the first choice of an ABA practitioner since you want to move into secondary reinforcers as quickly as possible. Still, for children with severe disabilities, especially older children with poor functional and social skills, edibles may be the way to engage them and begin building behavioral momentum. Some suggestions: CrackersPieces of fruitSmall individual candies, like Skittles or M and Ms.Preferred foods. Some children with autism love dill pickles. Sensory Items: Children with autism spectrum disorders often have issues with sensory integration, and crave sensory input. Items which provide that input, like spinning lights or musical toys, can be powerful reinforcers for young children with disabilities. Some reinforcers are: Spinning lights or vibrating pens. These kinds of sensory items can be found in catalogs for special educators. If you dont have access to the catalogs, your occupational therapist may actually have some of these items.Gross motor activities, like bouncing on a pilates ball, or a ceiling hung swing.Tickles or direct sensory input. This is most appropriate for very young children, but it may also help pair reinforcement with the therapist/teacher. Preferred Items and Toys Many children with disabilities love television and often perseverate on favorite television characters, like Mickey Mouse or Dora the Explorer. Combining these strong preferences with toys may make some items powerful reinforcers. Some ideas: Sound books with favorite characters. I have found these to be good reinforcers for young children.Jointed action figuresCars, trucks, and track.Thomas the Tank Engine trains.Small animal figures.Blocks. Ongoing Assessment Childrens interests change. So may the items or activities that they find reinforcing. At the same time, a practitioner should be moving to spread out reinforcement and pair primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers, like social interaction and praise. As children succeed in gaining new skills through ABA, they will move away from the short and frequent bursts of instruction that is discrete trial teaching toward more traditional and naturalistic methods of instruction. Some may even begin to reinforce themselves, by internalizing the values of competence and mastery.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Obesity, Diet and Physical Activity Data in England Shows Worsening State of Health of General Population - Essay Example The same overall trend emerges as the data is further processed and assessed for levels of occurrence of obesity as primary diagnoses for the same population of inpatients in hospitals in England over the decade-long observation period ending in 2013, with levels of occurrence being the highest for the age group from 35 to 54 years, and tapering off from either end of that peak age group (Datawrapper 2015; data.gov.uk 2015): There is another way to view the numbers presented above, that looks at the cost implications of the obesity numbers. Those costs relate to the medical interventions that are undertaken to treat obesity, and this, in turn, can be gauged by a proxy measure of the number of obesity medications that were given to obese inpatients in England for the observation period. Consistent with the overall trend for the occurrence of obesity throughout this observation period, with peaks around 2009-2011 and dips from 2012 to 2013, the numbers for medicine prescriptions to deal with obesity also follow the same peaks and dips (data.gov.uk 2015): Translating those prescription numbers into costs, we see that there has been a substantial overall escalation in obesity medicine costs through time, even with costs at the tail-end of the observation period going down (data.gov.uk 2015): Looking at the data from the perspective of the last plot, we see that obesity translates to very real and large healthcare financial costs. Moreover, extrapolating the figures and adding in the potential incremental costs of medication from the consequences of obesity, such as diabetes, it is natural to expect that the absolute financial costs must be a very large burden on patients and the healthcare system must shoulder. Moving forward, therefore, the overall trend towards worsening health has dire implications for the cost of managing obesity and overall healthcare in England (data.gov.uk 2015).
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Art History - Essay Example It considered this unbalanced or asymmetrical aspect is a style effect, and called it as Ã¢â¬Å"contrasteÃ¢â¬ . Another subtle similarity could be their love of exaggeration and decoration. Mannerism was inclined to portray anything, especially human form, in an exaggeratedly than realistically; they used artificial colors and unrealistic proportions. In most cased, the figures were exaggerated, placed in unimaginable poses. It was Ã¢â¬Å"unsettling and strangeÃ¢â¬ . Rococo loved decoration, though it did not focus on human forms. For example, Rococo paintings had an element of Ã¢â¬Å"naughtiness or impurity in the behavior of their subjectsÃ¢â¬ , which can be associated with unrealistic nature of the objects of Mannerism. The first difference between Mannerism and Rococo is that Mannerism is not Ã¢â¬Å"natural, gracefulÃ¢â¬ like the high Renaissance art; it uses Ã¢â¬Å"clashing colors, disquieting figures with abnormally elongated limbs, (often torturous-looking) emotion and bizarre themesÃ¢â¬ , however, Rococo uses Ã¢â¬Å"undulating lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo are the basis for grace and beauty in art or nature; (Ã¢â¬Å"RococoÃ¢â¬ , 2009; Ã¢â¬Å"Art History: Mannerism: (1520 - 1600)Ã¢â¬ , 2009). So Rococo is more akin to Renaissance in portraying the gracefulness in nature than Mannerism. Yet another difference is that Mannerism Ã¢â¬Å"combines Classicism, Christianity and mythologyÃ¢â¬ , but RococoÃ¢â¬â¢s use of curved lines was Ã¢â¬Å"unlike the straight line or the circle in ClassicismÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"RococoÃ¢â¬ , 2009; Ã¢â¬Å"Art History: Mannerism: (1520 - 1600)Ã¢â¬ , 2009). Mannerism was often considered Ã¢â¬Å"technically masterfulÃ¢â¬ whereas the critics of Rococo had pointed out its frivolous nature due to its focus on decorative arts and interior design and the importance it gave to the style component, despite its taste for the complex and intricate forms of Baroque art. Rococo had light hearted themes depicted in a fashionable
Friday, January 24, 2020
Region Coding Consumer protection or Consumer Manipulation Introduction With the advent of digital media has come a better ability for the owner of a copyright to protect the copyrighted work. Some mediums such as DVD have multiple levels of copy protection: 1. CSS scrambling for the video data on the disc, 2 . Macrovision for analog signal protection from the player, and 3. Region coding of a DVD disc and DVD player to prevent disc from being played in other parts of the world. Macrovison and CSS protect the media from illegal reproduction. Region coding prevents legal media from being used regions other than the intended region for the media. I believe the Region Coding without user bypass is the most controversial. Prohibiting a legally bought copy of a DVD from playing on a legal DVD player is protection for the company with no regard for the consumer. I will explore if Region coding is legal in Australia and if it is ethical. Region Coding and Circumvention Devices DVD is not the originator of Region Coding. Video game systems have used region coding schemes since the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The original circumvention was a physical constraint such that the media for the Famicon (Japanese NES) would not physically fit into NES for other regions (and vice versa). These allowed Nintendo to control the release of software and make importing of Famicon software to other regions less desirable due to the need to circumvent the region protection. With the introduction of the Sony Playstation and Sega Saturn (system) the media used was a standard CD. This meant region protection could no longer rely on physical constraints. A CD from one region has the same physical dimensions of a CD from other regions. The BIOS of the system contained the region code for the system. The system would then only allow access to media from the same region. The only way for the media to be played on a system for another region is a circumvention dev ice. The Australian Digital Agenda Act has given great protection to companies that employ region coding. This is by limiting circumvention devices such that Ã¢â¬Å"a circumvention device capable of circumventing, or facilitating the circumvention of, the technological protection measureÃ¢â¬ 1 would automatically be considered violation of copyright law.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Comparative Essay: Setting in Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar Named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËHedda GablerÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay
Setting can often reflect the underlying ideas in a play. In the light of this statement, consider the importance and use of setting in Ã¢â¬ËHedda GablerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ Setting, with all its different uses, is essential in revealing the imprisonment of protagonists and the values of a society in Ã¢â¬ËHedda GablerÃ¢â¬â¢ by Henrik Ibsen and Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ by Tennessee Williams. Both playwrights employ the use of setting in their plays to help reveal underlying ideas, giving the audience an insight to their respective society and the playwrightÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose of showing how societies are responsible for imprisoning their own people. Williams displays the fortes and the flaws in 1940s New Orleans with his selection of setting. The setting in Ã¢â¬ËA Streetcar named DesireÃ¢â¬â¢ reveals New OrleansÃ¢â¬â¢ carefree and come-and-go attitude. However, the setting also surfaces the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of compassion. Ibsen uses the setting to display the entrapment enforced on the protagonist. The constant images of imprisonment such as the window are a constant but subtle reminder to the audience that Hedda Gabler is imprisoned by her 19th Norwegian, sexist and propriety orientated society; to which she can have no input to decide her future. The setting used by both playwrights is essential in revealing the imprisonment of their protagonists, the values of a society in their respective plays as the set reveals the context of the play. Tennessee Williams uses his set in A Streetcar Named Desire to show the incongruity of Blanche in 1940s New Orleans, ultimately displaying how she does not belong there. The scene preceding BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance includes Stanley in his Ã¢â¬Ëblue denim work clothesÃ¢â¬â¢ carrying a Ã¢â¬Ëred stained meat packageÃ¢â¬â¢ from the butcher. This reflects the appearance of the setting; a poor area of New Orleans, Ã¢â¬Ëweathered greyÃ¢â¬â¢ buildings with Ã¢â¬Ëfaded white stairsÃ¢â¬â¢ complemented by a Ã¢â¬Ëbrown riverÃ¢â¬â¢ flowing nearby. The entrance of Blanche is inconsistent with this set as she is dressed in a Ã¢â¬Ëwhite suit with a fluffy bodiceÃ¢â¬â¢, a Ã¢â¬Ëpearl necklaceÃ¢â¬â¢ and carrying a Ã¢â¬ËvaliseÃ¢â¬â¢. She is literally incongruous with the settingÃ¢â¬â¢. Even her name; Blanche; which suggests purity and cleanliness, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t match the setting. The audience has an instant response in this first scene; Blanche is obviously not appropriate to New Orleans in the 1940s as she is instantly contrasting with everything that is going on around her. BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s first reactions give testament to he audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s impressions as he is shocked by the house that her sister, Stella, lives in and has to Ã¢â¬Ëwearily refers to the slip of paperÃ¢â¬â¢ to make sure sheÃ¢â¬â¢s at the right house. This shows that she is not used to this kind of setting at all. As soon as she steps onto the set, Blanche is imprisoned by it. The Ã¢â¬ËNew AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢ presented by the set is a jail for Blanche as she has no idea how things work and how to interact with women and particularly men. It seems that it is a constant barrier for her and she has nowhere to take refuge but her own mind where she speaks Ã¢â¬Ëfaintly to herselfÃ¢â¬â¢. It is recipe for tragedy. Williams has used his set in scene one to introduce the incarceration that Blanche experiences from the care-free and the come-and-go attitudes in New Orleans which continue until the end of the play. However, Ibsen presents the entrapment of the protagonist; Hedda, in a different way; the proprietary orientated society and setting that she lives in. Hedda Gabler is set in a 19th Norwegian society that is proprietary orientated, in that it values money, social status and is very traditional. Most of all, women are subjugated. This setting is essential in revealing the HeddaÃ¢â¬â¢s captivity in her society as it puts what she says and interacts with in context, allowing the audience to understand the gravity of her tragic situation. As Hedda and John Brack are talking, Hedda becomes very bitter about her obviously dull life. Brack starts to frustrate her with his hopeful and wishful thinking about her future, to which she eventually replies while standing Ã¢â¬Ëover by the glass doorÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëlooking outÃ¢â¬â¢; Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ve only got a gift for one thing in the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. For boring myself to death. She realises that in her society she has only two purposes; to marry and to have children. It is clear that she realises this because she knows how boring her life is and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do thing about it. It becomes clear to the audience that Hedda is trapped by her own society in that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t accept her as a man would be. She knows that there is fun and enjoyment to be had. One would say she can see it thought the Ã¢â¬Ëglass doorÃ¢â¬â¢. But this, again, is a barrier for her that she canÃ¢â¬â¢t get past. This is what makes Hedda Gabler such a tragic tale; she knows what independence and enjoyment can be had outside the walls of her house (which she never leaves in the entirety of the play), but she cannot escape them. She knows her fate before she can do anything to change it. She is stuck with her boring life because her 19th century Norwegian society will not allow her to blossom. It can be seen that Ibsen uses his setting to allow the audience to put the tragedy of Hedda Gabler into context of what she says in the play, showing her bitter and inevitable imprisonment in her home from the outside world. Common to both plays is the lack of compassion found within their respective societies emphasising the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s confinement in their societies to the audience. Henrik Ibsen displays the deficiency of sympathy found within the 19th Norwegian society in the ultimate scene of the play. As the climax of the play is reached, Hedda grabs her pistols and tragically shoots herself in the head. The characters representing selective parts of their society would have been expected to show some sympathy for poor Hedda but none is shown. Three characters are present when the suicide takes place; Tesman, Brack and Mrs Elvsted representing the scholars, the law and servant respectively in their society. None of these characters show any sympathy whatsoever to the now lifeless Hedda. Despicably, Brack criticises her actions and exclaims Ã¢â¬ËOne doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do that kind of thingÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a full representation of the lack of compassion in their society as before thinking about feeling sorry for poor Hedda Gabler, Brack exclaims that Hedda has done the wrong thing by the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values. From this, the audience can see that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values take priority over everything else. This ultimately shows that Hedda had no chance of branching out from her house from the start. It was always going to end this way. Tennessee WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ also shows the shortage of empathy towards the protagonist in the ultimate scene. When BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s breakdown is manifested, the characters all around her, each and everyone representing the society and the setting they live in, show hardly any compassion. Of all people who should have been helping Blanche, her sister, decided to call upon a doctor and a matron to take her to a mental institution. This is very confronting for the audience because if an average woman in 1940s New Orleans canÃ¢â¬â¢t even show compassion towards her sister and only family left in the world, then who will. In Both plays, this lack of compassion could be the clincher that led to the fate of both protagonists. All Blanch and Hedda ever wanted was just to fit into their respective societies. But the setting didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow them to do so. The setting is ultimately fundamental in revealing the entrapment enforced on both protagonists as the characters representing the setting are able to show the audience the behaviour of their societies; which have deficits in levels of compassion. The setting used by both playwrights is essential in revealing the imprisonment of their protagonists, the values of a society in their respective plays as the set reveals the context of the play. IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hedda Gabler and WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ A Streetcar Named Desire are similar in a way as their respective settings reveal the lack of concern and empathy for their respective societies; this deficiency in sympathy towards the protagonists; Hedda and Blanche ultimately leads to their tragic fates. However, the plays are different in that BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment in 1940s New Orleans is presented by her incongruity to the setting and New OrleansÃ¢â¬â¢ care-free attitude. Whereas Hedda is imprisoned in 19th century Norway by the social ranked, sexist and proprietary orientated society.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Step 2: Believing in a Supreme Being Please pause for a moment, and picture in your mind the washed away remnants of what used to be a small city; it is rather difficult to recognize from all the earthquake rubble and debris that there once was a town here. Bits and pieces of what used to be homes are now scattered from one end of the view to the other. A gloomy haze of dust, smoke and ash has recently enveloped over the entire countryside. Sounds of screaming, yelling and crying are bombarding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hearing senses; a smell of unbelievable human decaying stench is so over whelming, the odors stimulate the gag reflex and tear ducts to produce endless retching and a cleansing wash of foul air from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. Hungry ownerless dogs areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦You watch as Good-Samaritans carry dying victims to safety and see others walking aimlessly among dead corpses Ã¢â¬Å"wailingÃ¢â¬ in search of loved ones. A religiously minded person may stop and think; Ã¢â¬ Å"where is God in all of this?Ã¢â¬ Or, a person may have their atheistic belief strengthened that there is no such thing as a Supreme Being, for if there were a God, they would never allow this to happen to their Earthly children. Either way, your faith is about to be tested way beyond your capability to understand. At this point, the emotional destruction of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is settling down in your soul; it is wreaking havoc upon what is left of your every emotional stability. Unless, you have an unshaking, unswerving belief and testimony in God, you will inevitably falter (terrybroadwater, 2013) See figure III. a b c (d) Figure III, a,b,c,and d are courtesy of the World Health Organization (Victims of the Haitian Earthquake and Tsunami) Experiencing these kinds of overwhelming disasters will tear anyone emotionally apart, especially if they are not psychologically ready to handle such sights, sounds and smells (Solomon, Berger, Ginzburg, 2007). These kinds of places leave no room for doubt; no suspicious reservation that God does not exist. One must believe there is a God given reason why all things happen, why death is just another important step in the eternal process of living, why death is simply